Innovita Research Foundation

I.R.F. / Aging news / Cloning / 10043001

Vitamin D Importance in Organism Aging
Posted on: April 30, 2010

Vitamin D inadequacy is common worldwide and classically causes osteomalacia and rickets. More recently, the contribution of low vitamin D status to increased falls and fracture risk has become appreciated. Additionally, nonclassic effects of vitamin D inadequacy are being recognized, and low vitamin D status is being potentially associated with a multitude of conditions (including Alzheimer disease, osteoarthritis, multiple sclerosis, and hypertension) and higher overall mortality. More detailed analysis has revealed molecular regulatory properties of this important substance.

The nuclear vitamin D receptor (VDR) binds 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25D), its high affinity renal endocrine ligand, to signal intestinal calcium and phosphate absorption plus bone remodeling, generating a mineralized skeleton free of rickets/osteomalacia with a reduced risk of osteoporotic fractures. 1,25D/VDR signaling regulates the expression of TRPV6, BGP, SPP1, LRP5, RANKL and OPG, while achieving feedback control of mineral ions to prevent age-related ectopic calcification by governing CYP24A1, PTH, FGF23, PHEX, and klotho transcription.

Vitamin D also elicits numerous intracrine actions when circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3), the metabolite reflecting vitamin D status, is converted to 1,25D locally by extrarenal CYP27B1, and binds VDR to promote immunoregulation, antimicrobial defense, xenobiotic detoxification, anti-inflammatory/anticancer actions and cardiovascular benefits. VDR also affects Wnt signaling through direct interaction with beta-catenin, ligand-dependently blunting beta-catenin mediated transcription in colon cancer cells to attenuate growth, while potentiating beta-catenin signaling via VDR ligand-independent mechanisms in osteoblasts and keratinocytes to function osteogenically and as a pro-hair cycling receptor, respectively.

Finally, VDR also drives the mammalian hair cycle in conjunction with the hairless corepressor by repressing SOSTDC1, S100A8/S100A9, and PTHrP. Hair provides a shield against UV-induced skin damage and cancer in terrestrial mammals, illuminating another function of VDR that facilitates healthful aging.

Source: M.R. Haussler, et al., The nuclear vitamin D receptor controls the expression of genes encoding factors which feed the "Fountain of Youth" to mediate healthful aging, J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. (2010), doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2010.03.019
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