Innovita Research Foundation

I.R.F. / Aging news / General

There are reviews of the articles and information about aging in general (aging process; factors of aging; ways to slower this process etc.)

May 27, 2023 Physical Exercise Change Inflammatory Cytokine Profile in the Brains of Aging Rats
Aging is often accompanied by cognitive decline, memory impairment and an increased susceptibility to neurodegenerative disorders. Most of these age-related alterations have been associated with deleterious processes such as changes in cytokine expression. Cytokines are cell-signaling proteins secreted to mediate the response of the body's defense system to injury, and to regulate diverse inflammatory processes … [find out more >>]
May 21, 2023 Tumor Necrosis Factor Polymorphism and Cognitive Function in Aging
In the past years, the role of proinflammatory cytokines in healthy aging, mild cognitive impairment and neurodegenerative diseases has attracted much interest. One major proinflammatory cytokine is the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Animal studies in rodents (TNF knockout mice) suggest that TNF-α deficiency leads to widespread effects in cognitive function throughout the aging process and it appears that low levels of TNF appear essential for normal cognitive function … [find out more >>]
April 25, 2023 Life-long Aerobic Exercise Training and Cerebral Hemodynamics, Is There a Link?
Physical activity may influence cerebrovascular function. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of life-long aerobic exercise training on cerebral vasomotor reactivity (CVMR) to changes in end-tidal CO2 (EtCO2) in older adults. Eleven sedentary young (SY, 27±5 years), 10 sedentary elderly (SE, 72±4 years), and 11 Masters athletes (MA, 72±6 years) underwent the measurements of cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV), arterial blood pressure, and EtCO2 during hypocapnic hyperventilation and hypercapnic rebreathing … [find out more >>]
April 22, 2023 Nicotine in Pregnant Rats: What is Damaged First?
Myelination defects in the central nervous system (CNS) are associated with various psychiatric disorders, including drug addiction. As these disorders are often observed in individuals prenatally exposed to cigarette smoking, scientist has tested the hypothesis that such exposure impairs central myelination in adolescence, an important period of brain development and the peak age of onset of psychiatric disorders. To find out this, pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were treated with nicotine (3 mg/kg per day; gestational nicotine (GN)) or gestational saline via osmotic mini pumps from gestational days 4-18. … [find out more >>]
March 28, 2023 Fruit Flies, Tryptophan and Immortality
Tryptophan (TRY) is an amino acid participating in biosynthesis of proteins and methoxyindoles (serotonin and melatonin). TRY 2,3-dioxygenase 2 (TDO) is a ratelimiting enzyme of the major non-protein route of TRY metabolism: the cleavage of indole ring of TRY with the formation of formyl-kynurenine, and subsequently, kynurenine (KYN). Animal and human studies suggested that aging is associated with upregulation of TRY-KYN metabolism … [find out more >>]
March 27, 2023 Correlation Between Outcome of Hepatitis C and Patients' Age
Aging is associated with a complex remodeling of the immune system. While adaptive immune responses show impairment with aging, innate immune responses tend to improve it. Low numbers of CD3+, CD4+ and CD8 T cells have been observed in aged individuals … [find out more >>]
March 26, 2023 Cytokines and Cells in the Aging of Immunity
Several alterations in immune function and a concomitant progressive increase in pro-inflammatory status are the major characteristics of ageing process. Cytokines play a key role during ageing acting both in regulatory communications among cells and in effector activity during an immune response. The impact of age on intracellular Type 1 (IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha) and Type 2 (IL-4) cytokines, after stimulation with PMA/ionomycin, was determined in three CD4+ T subsets, i.e. CD95- CD28+ (virgin), CD95+ CD28+ (activated/memory), and CD95+ CD28- (effector/memory) from 47 subjects aged between 21 and 99 years … [find out more >>]
March 25, 2023 Chronic Antigenic Stimulation and Immune System Feasibility in Old Age
Recent observations indicate that immunosenescence is not accompanied by an unavoidable and progressive deterioration of the immune function, but is rather the result of a remodeling where some functions are reduced; others remain unchanged or even increased. In addition, it appears that the ancestral/innate compartment of the immune system is relatively preserved during aging in comparison to the more recent and sophisticated adaptive compartment that exhibit more profound modifications. The T-cell branch displays an age-dependent decline of the absolute number of total T-cells (CD3+), involving both CD4+ and CD8+ subsets, accompanied by an increase of NK cells with well-preserved cytotoxic function and by a reduction of B-cells … [find out more >>]
August 31, 2022 Follistatin, – a Novel Aging Marker in Stem Cells
Human aging is associated with loss of function and regenerative capacity. Human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) are involved in tissue regeneration, evidenced by their capacity to differentiate into several lineages and therefore are considered the golden standard for cell-based regeneration therapy. Tissue maintenance and regeneration is dependent on stem cells and declines with age and aging is thought to influence therapeutic efficacy, therefore, more insight in the process of aging of hMSCs is of high interest … [find out more >>]
August 31, 2022 Ethanol, Black Tea and Aging
Aging is accompanied by changes in the redox balance that is additionally modified by alcohol. Ethanol metabolism is connected with generation of free radicals which can damage cell components especially when antioxidant mechanisms are not able to neutralize them. In connection with the necessity of prevention against oxidative consequences, natural antioxidants are looked for … [find out more >>]
August 30, 2022 Calories and Aging
Nutrition has important long-term consequences for health that are not only limited to the individual but can be passed on to the next generation. It can contribute to the development and progression of chronic diseases thus effecting life span. Caloric restriction (CR) can extend the average and maximum life span and delay the onset of age-associated changes in many organisms … [find out more >>]
August 30, 2022 Aging Brain Proteome
In the mammalian central nervous system, generation of new neurons persists in the subventricular zone (SVZ) throughout life. However, the capacity for neurogenesis in this region declines with aging. Recent studies have examined the degree of these age-related neurogenic declines and the changes of cytoarchitecture of the SVZ with aging … [find out more >>]
August 30, 2022 Green Tea Supplementation in Rats and Brain Antioxidant Abilities
Oxidative stress induced by chronic ethanol consumption, particularly in aging subjects, has been implicated in the pathophysiology of many neurodegenerative diseases. Antioxidants with polyphenol structures, such as those contained in green tea, given alone for 5 weeks in liquid Lieber de Carli diet followed by administration with ethanol for 4 weeks have been investigated as potential therapeutic antioxidant agents in the brain in rats of three ages (2, 12, and 24 months). Ethanol consumption caused age-dependent decreases in brain superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and catalase activities … [find out more >>]
July 31, 2022 One More Property of Stem Cells from Developing Teeth, – Neural Phenotype
Recent reports have described that NCSCs (neural crest derived stem cells) are not only present in the embryonic neural crest, but also in the adult tissues. Dental pulp is one of mesenchymal soft tissues origin from cranial neural crest cells, and thought to be a source of adult stem cells. Scientists investigated the existence of NCSCs-like cells in apical pulp of human developing tooth … [find out more >>]
July 27, 2022 In Vitro Analysis of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from Human Teeth and Bone Marrow
Mesenchymal stem cells derived from human teeth and bone marrow have been characterized by many research groups, but demonstrate inconsistent cellular phenotypes or functions, partly because of differences in culture methodology. The aim of this study was to resolve these inconsistencies and discuss the potential uses of these cells in research/clinical applications. For this purpose scientists isolated and characterized dental stem cells (DSCs) from the dental pulp, periodontal ligament, apical papilla (APSCs) and dental follicle (DFSCs) of mature and immature teeth, along with bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSCs) from the iliac crest … [find out more >>]
July 23, 2022 Dental Pulp, a Promising Target for Source of Young Stem Cells
Dental pulp (DP) can be extracted from child's primary teeth (deciduous), whose loss occurs spontaneously by about 5 to 12 years. Thus, DP presents an easy accessible source of stem cells without ethical concerns. Substantial quantities of stem cells of an excellent quality and at early (2-5) passages are necessary for clinical use, which currently is a problem for use of adult stem cells … [find out more >>]
July 20, 2022 Proteomic Analysis Revealed Hair Growth Modulating Biomarkers
The dermal papilla cells (DPCs) of hair follicles are known to secrete paracrine factors for follicular cells. Shotgun proteomic analysis was performed by South Korean group of scientists to compare the expression profiles of the secretomes of human DPCs and dermal fibroblasts (DFs). In this study, the proteins secreted by DPCs and matched DFs were analyzed by 1DE/LTQ FTICR MS/MS, semi-quantitatively determined using emPAI mole percent values and then characterized using protein interaction network analysis … [find out more >>]
July 16, 2022 Caloric Restriction is Useful in Retarding Aging. Metabolome Study.
Calorie restriction (CR) remains the most robust metabolic intervention to extend lifespan and improve healthspan in several species. Using global and targeted mass spectrometry-based metabolomics approaches, scientists showed that chronic CR prevents age-related changes in specific metabolic signatures. Global metabolomic analysis using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry detected more than 7,000 metabolites in sera from ad-libitum-fed young, aged, and aged C57BL/6 mice maintained on 40 % CR … [find out more >>]
July 13, 2022 Age-related Shift in Cerebrospinal Fluid Concentrations of Proteins
Studies have shown that ageing alone can cause increases in the concentrations of many cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) proteins. Therefore, CSF protein concentrations must be interpreted with caution before concluding that the increased concentrations of certain proteins can be used as disease-specific biomarkers. Age-related reduction in CSF turnover has been shown to have a significant concentrating effect on CSF proteins from young to old … [find out more >>]
June 29, 2022 MicroRNAs: a Potent Player in the Body
MicroRNAs (miRs) are small, noncoding RNAs (21-25 nucleotides in size) that posttranscriptionally control gene expression by inhibiting protein translation or inducing target mRNA destabilization. Besides their intracellular function, recent studies demonstrate that miRs can be exported or released by cells and circulate with the blood in a remarkably stable form. The discovery of circulating miRs opens up intriguing possibilities to use the circulating miR patterns as biomarker for cardiovascular diseases … [find out more >>]
June 7, 2022 Very Small Embryonic-like Stem Cells, – Early Progenitors for other Stem Cells?
Very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) are possibly lost during cord blood banking and bone marrow (BM) processing for autologus stem cell therapy mainly because of their small size. The present study was conducted on human umbilical cord blood (UCB, n=6) and discarded red blood cells (RBC) fraction obtained after separation of mononuclear cells from human BM (n=6), to test this hypothesis. The results show that VSELs, which are pluripotent stem cells with maximum regenerative potential, settle along with the RBCs during Ficoll-Hypaque density separation … [find out more >>]
May 31, 2022 Subventricular Zone Stem Cell Pool Changes through Aging
Through adulthood, the rodent subventricular zone (SVZ) stem cell niche generates new olfactory bulb interneurons. It was previously reported that the number of new neurons produced in the SVZ declines through aging; however, age-related changes attributable specifically to the SVZ neural stem cell (NSC) population have not been fully characterized. A spatiotemporal evaluation of adult SVZ NSCs has been conducted here … [find out more >>]
May 31, 2022 Vitamin D Should Be Consumed Together with Calcium for a Benefit Effect
European scientists have reported a huge study contributing to vitamin D effect on patient mortality in the elderly age. It is presumed that vitamin D may affect multiple health outcomes. If so, an effect on mortality is to be expected … [find out more >>]
May 30, 2022 Physical Properties of Proteins, – a Link to Neurodegeneration
The field of amyloid fibres bloomed in the mid-90s when several researchers-among them Chris Dobson, a professor first at Oxford and then at Cambridge-observed that proteins could aggregate by concomitant formation of fibrillar structures. It was certainly not news that proteins could aggregate with an irreversible mechanism. However, what nearly came as a surprise was the realization that aggregation is often accompanied by a major structural rearrangement, which almost invariably associates with protein misfolding (i.e. loss of the native structure and adoption of a beta-rich structure) and amyloid fibre formation … [find out more >>]
May 30, 2022 Differences in Young and Old Satellite Muscle Cells
Group of scientists reported a tremendously interesting study on skeletal muscle aging. It is known that skeletal muscle undergoes a progressive age-related loss in mass and function. Preservation of muscle mass depends in part on satellite cells, the resident stem cells of skeletal muscle … [find out more >>]
May 29, 2022 Chronic Cigarette Smoking is a Candidate for Induction of Synaptic Changes and Other Neuropathological Alterations in Rats
Cigarette smoking has been proposed as a major risk factor for aging-related pathological changes and Alzheimer's disease (AD). To date, little is known for how smoking can predispose our brains to dementia or cognitive impairment. This study aimed to investigate the cigarette smoke-induced pathological changes in brains … [find out more >>]
March 30, 2022 Diet of Nectarines and Longevity of Fruit Flies
Fruits containing high antioxidant capacities and other bioactivities are ideal for promoting longevity and health span. However, few fruits are known to improve the survival and health span in animals, let alone the underlying mechanisms. Scientists investigated the effects of nectarine, a globally consumed fruit, on life span and health span in Drosophila melanogaster … [find out more >>]
March 30, 2022 Resveratrol Effect on the Life Span of Fruit Flies
Resveratrol, a polyphenolic compound, has been shown to extend lifespan in different organisms. Emerging evidence suggests that the prolongevity effect of resveratrol depends on dietary composition. However, the mechanisms underlying the interaction of resveratrol and dietary nutrients in modulating lifespan remain elusive … [find out more >>]
March 28, 2022 Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) in Aging
Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) is known for its role in promoting cell division and cellular differentiation in developing animals, but we know surprising little about what EGF does in vivo in mature adult animals. In article referenced below author review EGF signaling, emphasizing several recent studies that uncovered an unexpected role for EGF in promoting longevity and healthspan in mature adult C. Elegans. EGF, acting through phospholipase Cγ and the IP3 receptor signaling, maintains pharyngeal and body wall muscle function in aging adults, and delays the accumulation of lipofuscin-enriched aging pigments within intestinal cells … [find out more >>]
March 28, 2022 Immune System Could be the Key to Aging?
Increasing the pool of cells at early T-cell developmental stages enhances thymopoiesis and is especially beneficial when T-cell production is compromised by radiation or aging. Within the immature double-negative (DN; CD4(-)CD8(-)) thymocyte subpopulation, the DN1 subset contains the most primitive cells including the rare early T-cell progenitors (ETPs). In the present study, a human MCL1 transgene, under the control of its endogenous promoter, resulted in enlargement of an undistorted thymus in C57/BL6 mice … [find out more >>]
March 16, 2022 Antiaging Protein – Eotaxin?
Ageing in the central nervous system results in a precipitous decline in adult neural stem/progenitor cells and neurogenesis, with concomitant impairments in cognitive functions. Interestingly, such impairments can be ameliorated through systemic perturbations such as exercise. Using heterochronic parabiosis, scientists have shown that blood-borne factors present in the systemic milieu can inhibit or promote adult neurogenesis in an age-dependent fashion in mice … [find out more >>]
February 23, 2022 Extremely Long-lived Proteins
To combat the functional decline of the proteome, cells use the process of protein turnover to replace potentially impaired polypeptides with new functional copies. Scientists found that extremely long-lived proteins (ELLPs) did not turn over in post-mitotic cells of the rat central nervous system … [find out more >>]
February 21, 2022 Accumulation of Damage at the Nuclear Pore Complexes Might be a Crucial Aging Event
In dividing cells, nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) disassemble during mitosis and reassemble into the newly forming nuclei. However, the fate of nuclear pores in postmitotic cells is unknown. Scientists found that NPCs, unlike other nuclear structures, do not turn over in differentiated cells … [find out more >>]
December 29, 2011 Mole Rats and Aging
Naked mole rats (NMRs; Heterocephalus glaber) are the longest-living rodents known, with a maximum lifespan of 30 years – 5 times longer than expected on the basis of body size. These highly social mouse-sized rodents, naturally found in subterranean burrows in the arid and semiarid regions of the horn of Africa, are commonly used in behavioral, neurological, and ecophysiological research. Very old NMRs (>28 years), like humans, show signs of age-associated pathologies (e.g., muscle loss) as well as the accumulation of lipofuscin pigments, but no signs of tumorigenesis … [find out more >>]
December 27, 2011 Dental Pulp Progenitor/Stem Cells Induce Neuroplasticity in Host's Nervous System
The human central nervous system has limited capacity for regeneration. Stem cell-based therapies may overcome this through cellular mechanisms of neural replacement and/or through molecular mechanisms, whereby secreted factors induce change in the host tissue. To investigate these mechanisms, scientists used a readily accessible human cell population, dental pulp progenitor/stem cells (DPSCs) that can differentiate into functionally active neurons given the appropriate environmental cues … [find out more >>]
December 25, 2011 PGC-1 Expression Can Modulate Aging Process
In mammals, the PGC-1 transcriptional coactivators are key regulators of energy metabolism, including mitochondrial biogenesis and respiration, which have been implicated in numerous pathogenic conditions, including neurodegeneration and cardiomyopathy. Scientists have shown that overexpression of the Drosophila PGC-1 homolog (dPGC-1/spargel) is sufficient to increase mitochondrial activity … [find out more >>]
December 23, 2011 PGC-1 Homologue in Mitochondrial Activity
Mitochondrial mass and activity must be adapted to tissue function, cellular growth and nutrient availability. In mammals, the related transcriptional coactivators PGC-1α, PGC-1β and PRC regulate multiple metabolic functions, including mitochondrial biogenesis. However, we know relatively little about their respective roles in vivo … [find out more >>]
December 21, 2011 Fat and Aging
Studies over the last several years have revealed important roles of the body fat content, caloric intake and nutrition, insulin/IGF-1 signaling systems, and pathways involved in oxidative stress and control of protein acetylation on life span. Although the discovery of longevity genes supports the concept that life span is genetically determined, adipose tissue seems to be a pivotal organ in the aging process and in the determination of life span. Leanness and caloric restriction have been shown to increase longevity in organisms ranging from yeast to mammals … [find out more >>]
November 30, 2011 Aging and Timing of Myocardial Injury are Factors that May Act Synergistically in Determining Stem Cell Availability and Function
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of aging and timing of left ventricular ischemic injury on the availability and functionality of stem cells. Scientists studied young and aged male inbred Lewis rats that were used as donors of bone marrow mononuclear cells (BM-MNCs), divided in four experimental groups: controls, sham operated, 48 h post-myocardial infarction (MI), and 28 days post-MI. In vitro studies included flow cytometry analysis, hematopoietic colony-forming capacity, and invasion assays of migration capacity … [find out more >>]
November 29, 2011 Iron Metabolism Gene Variants and Healthy Aging
Prevalent gene variants involved in iron metabolism [hemochromatosis (HFE) H63D and transferrin C2 (TfC2)] have been associated with higher risk and earlier age at onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD), especially in men. Brain iron increases with age, is higher in men, and is abnormally elevated in several neurodegenerative diseases, including AD and Parkinson's disease, where it has been reported to contribute to younger age at onset in men. The effects of the common genetic variants (HFE H63D and/or TfC2) on brain iron were studied across eight brain regions (caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, thalamus, hippocampus, white matter of frontal lobe, genu, and splenium of corpus callosum) in 66 healthy adults (35 men, 31 women) aged 55 to 76 … [find out more >>]
November 29, 2011 Protein Markers of Aging in Mice
Normal aging is accompanied by a series of physiological changes such as gray hair, cataracts, reduced immunity, and increased susceptibility to disease. To identify novel biomarkers of normal aging, scientists analyzed plasma proteins of male mice longitudinally from 2 to 19 months of age … [find out more >>]
November 28, 2011 Hippocampal and Cognitive Aging across the Lifespan
Multiple hippocampal processes and cognitive functions change with aging or Alzheimer's disease, but the potential triggers of these aging cascades are not well understood. Scientists quantified hippocampal expression profiles and behavior across the adult lifespan to identify early aging changes and changes that coincide with subsequent onset of cognitive impairment … [find out more >>]
November 28, 2011 Age-related Differences in Human Fibrinogen
Fibrinogen has previously been demonstrated to exist in a "fetal" form, in cord blood of term infants, with increased sialic acid content compared to adult fibrinogen. The functional implications of these differences are reflected in prolonged thrombin clotting times in newborns as well as differences in polymerization of fibrin from "fetal" fibrinogen. Despite numerous studies of fibrinogen structure and function, the age at which "fetal" fibrinogen reverts to the adult form, as well as the physiological significance of this phenomenon remains unknown … [find out more >>]
October 28, 2011 Mammalian Thymus, One of the Leading Regulators of Aging
During the past century of research on the thymus, the fact that every mammalian thymus undergoes marked morphological changes during the complex process of aging has been defined as a basic histogenetical rule. In characterizing the physiological (i.e. chronic) involution of the mammalian thymus, the term "Altersinvolution" referring to age-related involution is used. All other types of thymic involution are associated with an initial trigger and a relatively "acute" mechanism … [find out more >>]
October 28, 2011 Changes in Lymphohaemopoietic System of Heterochronically Parabiosed Mice
This study examines some characteristics of the lymphohaemopoietic system of heterochronically parabiosed CBA mice. It was found that a decline of the primary immune response in a young mouse sutured with an old one is accompanied with the diminution of: bone marrow and thymus cellularity; thymus weight; haemopoietic stem cells (CFC-S) and granulocyte-macrophage precursor cells (CFC-C) contents in the femur, and stromal precursor cell (CFC-F) contents both in the femur and thymus … [find out more >>]
October 27, 2011 Pioneers in Parabiont Models in the Research of Aging
Potential mechanisms of aging of the immune system were studied in experimental heterochronic parabiosis of CBA mice. Vascular anastomoses were formed between parabionts thus providing an exchange of the humoral and cell factors and repopulation of lymphoid organs by the partner cells. Investigation into the primary immune response to sheep red blood cells has shown the suppression of antibody production in young partners to be the result of the old body influence … [find out more >>]
September 29, 2011 Compounds Increasing Klotho Protein Production Identified
The absence of Klotho (KL) in mice causes the development of disorders associated with human aging and decreased longevity, while increased expression prolongs lifespan. With age, KL protein levels decrease and keeping levels consistent may promote healthier aging and be disease modifying. Using the KL promoter to drive expression of luciferase, we conducted a high throughput screen to identify compounds that activate KL transcription … [find out more >>]
September 28, 2011 Transmembrane Protein Expression is Increasing with Age
P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a transmembrane protein that mediates the efflux of innumerous structurally unrelated compounds. It was initially found over-expressed in tumor cells, associated to a multidrug resistance phenotype (MDR). Then, P-gp was found constitutively expressed in excretory cells/tissues and in circulating cells, such as lymphocytes … [find out more >>]
September 9, 2011 Bone Marrow Stem Cells Secrete Factors with Strong Protecting Potential
The reparative properties of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) have been attributed in part to the paracrine action of secreted factors. Scientists isolated typical human BMSCs by plastic adherence and compared them with BMSC sub-populations isolated by magnetic-activated cell sorting against CD133 (CD133-derived BMSCs, CD133BMSCs) or CD271 [p75 low-affinity nerve growth factor receptor (p75LNGFR), p75BMSCs] … [find out more >>]
September 5, 2011 Higher Serum Cathepsin S levels are Associated with Increased Mortality Risk
Cathepsin S, also known as CTSS, is a protein, which in humans is encoded by the CTSS gene. The protein encoded by this gene, a member of the peptidase C1 family, is a lysosomal cysteine protease that may participate in the degradation of antigenic proteins to peptides for presentation on MHC class II molecules. The encoded protein can function as an elastase over a broad pH range in alveolar macrophages. Transcript variants utilizing alternative polyadenylation signals exist for this gene … [find out more >>]
August 31, 2011 Impaired Proprioception in Physiological Ageing
Several changes in the human sensory systems, like presbycusis or presbyopia, are well-known to occur with physiological ageing. A similar change is likely to occur in proprioception, too, but there are strong and unexplained discrepancies in the literature. It was proposed that assessment of the attentional cost of proprioceptive control could provide information able to unify these previous studies … [find out more >>]
August 30, 2011 Exercise Reverses Age-induced Changes in Mice
Normal aging alters expression of numerous genes within the brain. Some of these transcription changes likely contribute to age-associated cognitive decline, reduced neural plasticity, and the higher incidence of neuropathology. Identifying factors that modulate brain aging is crucial for improving quality of life. One promising intervention to counteract negative effects of aging is aerobic exercise … [find out more >>]
August 30, 2011 Effect of Polyamines on Aging in Mice
Chronic low-grade inflammation is recognized as an important factor contributing to senescence and age-related diseases. In mammals, levels of polyamines (PAs) decrease during the ageing process; PAs are known to decrease systemic inflammation by inhibiting inflammatory cytokine synthesis in macrophages. Reductions in intestinal luminal PAs levels have been associated with intestinal barrier dysfunction … [find out more >>]
August 29, 2011 Change of Physiological Parameters During Aging
The aim of the work was to study sex-specific differences between certain risk factors of cardiovascular diseases and hemodynamic parameters in elderly subjects and their relation to age-specific diseases and genealogic history of longevity. Total cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose, fibrinogen, uric acid, urea, creatinine levels in plasma and arterial pressure (AP) were measured. Hemodynamic parameters were calculated by the formulas for the stroke volume, cardiac output, myocardial contractility, pulse pressure, total peripheral resistance (TPR), endurance factor of cardiac activity, and Kerdo index … [find out more >>]
August 29, 2011 Changes During Immune and Vascular Aging
Susceptibility for giant cell arteritis increases with chronological age, in parallel with age-related restructuring of the immune system and age-induced remodeling of the vascular wall. Immunosenescence results in shrinkage of the naïve T-cell pool, contraction of T-cell diversity, and impairment of innate immunity. Aging of immunocompetent cells forces the host to take alternative routes for protective immunity and confers risk for pathogenic immunity that causes chronic inflammatory tissue damage … [find out more >>]
July 29, 2011 Dysfunctional Telomeres in hCSCs Could Be Biomarkers of Aging and Heart Failure
Currently, it is unknown whether defects in stem cell growth and differentiation contribute to myocardial aging and chronic heart failure (CHF), and whether a compartment of functional human cardiac stem cells (hCSCs) persists in the decompensated heart. To determine whether aging and CHF are critical determinants of the loss in growth reserve of the heart, the properties of hCSCs were evaluated in 18 control and 23 explanted hearts. Age and CHF showed a progressive decrease in functionally competent hCSCs … [find out more >>]
July 21, 2011 Progerin and Telomere Dysfunction Trigger Cellular Senescence in Normal Human Fibroblasts
Cellular senescence, the finite division capacity of normal somatic cells in vitro, has long been used as a cellular model for understanding mechanisms underlying normal aging. A popular hypothesis of cellular senescence is that progressive attrition of telomeric DNA results in loss of telomere capping proteins, exposing DNA breaks that activate cell cycle arrest and senescence … [find out more >>]
June 29, 2011 Some Facts about Estrogens: Telomeres and Aging
Oestrogen plays an important role in ageing and ageing-related development. Lack of oestrogen prompts endocrine cell ageing of the ovary, whereas oestrogen overflow impacts on epithelial cell neoplastic development. … [find out more >>]
May 30, 2011 Blueberry Diet Can Improve Memory in Aging Body
Oxidative stress, reflecting the accumulation of oxygen- containing free radicals, increases with aging and may play a key role in age-related functional deficits of the brain and other organs, such as the heart. Blueberries are one of the foods with the greatest ability to neutralize oxygen-containing free radicals. In rodent models of brain aging, dietary blueberry supplementation impeded the development of impairments in neurochemistry, synaptic transmission, and behavior. Aging human beings tend to be impaired in visual object recognition memory … [find out more >>]
May 20, 2011 Somatic Mosaicism and Aging
From the fertilization of an egg until the death of an individual, somatic cells can accumulate genetic changes, such that cells from different tissues or even within the same tissue differ genetically. The presence of multiple cell clones with distinct genotypes in the same individual is referred to as "somatic mosaicism". Many endogenous factors such as mobile elements, DNA polymerase slippage, DNA double-strand break, inefficient DNA repair, unbalanced chromosomal segregation and some exogenous factors such as nicotine and UV expo- sure can contribute to the generation of somatic mutations, thereby leading to somatic mosaicism. Such changes can potentially affect the epigenetic patterns and levels of gene expression, and ultimately the phenotypes of cells. Although recent studies suggest that somatic mosaicism is widespread during normal development and aging, its implications for heightened disease risks are incompletely understood … [find out more >>]
May 17, 2011 Aging-related Diseases
Several diseases such as cataract, macular degeneration, neurodegenerative diseases and atherosclerosis are associated with aging. Almost all of the hubs of the longevity network are involved in at least one age-related disease. There is a common signature network (588 proteins) of human longevity and major age-related diseases (atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes, cancer, and Alzheimer's disease) … [find out more >>]
May 12, 2011 Aging-related Databases
The collection of large datasets is a prerequisite to build networks and several databases have been created to store them. The JenAge Centre for Systems Biology of Ageing provides a list of aging-related databases with links to their websites. Listed databases contain biological data, demographic data, diseases (e.g. Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases) and metadata. Some databases storing biological data are briefly presented … [find out more >>]
March 31, 2011 Peroxiredoxin 2 Down Regulation in Aging Rats
Hematopoiesis in bone marrow declines during aging owing to alteration of the hematopoietic niche. However, due to difficult accessibility and other complexities, senescence-related alteration of the hematopoietic niche is largely unknown. The interstitial fluid of bone marrow (IFBM), a pivotal component of the hematopoietic niche, includes soluble secretory factors that are present between bone marrow cells … [find out more >>]
March 28, 2011 Q10 Can Modulate Age Related Protein Synthesis
Dietary coenzyme Q(10) prolongs life span of rats fed on a PUFAn-6-enriched diet. The aim was to analyze changes in the levels of plasma proteins of rats fed on a PUFAn-6 plus coenzyme Q(10)-based diet. This approach could give novel insights into the mechanisms of life span extension by dietary coenzyme Q(10) in the rat … [find out more >>]
March 22, 2011 Protein Profile of Murine Aging Brain
Scientists used comparative proteomic techniques to identify aging-related brain proteins in normal mice from neonate to old age. By 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) and peptide mass fingerprint (PMF) analysis, 39 proteins were identified, among which 6 stayed unchanged since 3 months, 6 increased and 27 decreased in various manners during aging. … [find out more >>]
March 18, 2011 Skeletal Muscle Insulin Sensitivity in Rats due to Age and Sex
Aging is associated with a progressive decline of skeletal muscle function and insulin sensitivity. Sex differences in the insulin response to different physiological situations have been found, leading to the development of type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in insulin sensitivity with age in male and female rats and to elucidate whether there are sex differences in the alteration profiles of systemic insulin sensitivity parameters, adiposity, skeletal muscle oxidative damage, and the insulin signaling pathway … [find out more >>]
February 28, 2011 Intramyocardial Injection of VSELs is One of the Strategies to Fight Myocardial Infarction Induced Damage to the Heart
Cardiovascular diseases are one of the main reasons of human death. The treatment is still very complicated and doesn't give expected results. Cellular replacement therapy could be one of the possible therapeutic approaches to solve this problem. The main challenge here is fast and simple way to receive transplant/cells when it is needed … [find out more >>]
February 25, 2011 Intermittent Hypoxia Mobilizes VSELs from the BM to PB and Activates Distinct Transcriptional Programs in Mice
Obstructive sleep apnea is a prevalent disorder associated with cognitive dysfunction and cardiovascular and metabolic morbidity and is characterized by recurrent episodes of hypoxia during sleep. Bone marrow-derived very small embryonic-like (VSEL) pluripotent stem cells represent a recruitable pool that may play an important role in organ repair after injury. It was hypothesized that exposure to intermittent hypoxia (IH) can mobilize VSELs from the bone marrow (BM) to peripheral blood (PB) in mice and can activate distinct transcriptional programs … [find out more >>]
February 25, 2011 VSELs are Highly Resistant to Total Body Irradiation and Have the Potential to Become Specified into the Hematopoietic Lineage in Mice
The intriguing very small embryonic-like stem Sca-1(+)/Lin(-)/CD45(-) cells (VSELs) in adult murine bone marrow that express several epiblast/germ line and pluripotent stem cell markers (e.g., Oct-4 and SSEA-4) has been driven to differentiate along the hemato/lymphopoietic lineage. For this purpose purified from bone marrow, VSELs were primed/cocultured over OP9 stroma cell line and subsequently tested in vitro and in vivo assays for their hematopoietic potential. In parallel, cells derived from VSELs were evaluated for expression of hematopoietic genes and surface markers … [find out more >>]
February 24, 2011 Very Small Embryonic-like (VSEL) Stem Cells Could Be Isolated During Leukapheresis
Very interesting fact has been noticed by scientists, that normal human bone marrow (hBM)-derived CD34(+) cells, released into the peripheral blood after granulocyte colony-stimulating factor mobilization, contain cell subpopulations committed along endothelial and cardiac differentiation pathways. These subpopulations could play a key role in the regeneration of post-ischemic myocardial lesion after their direct intracardiac delivery. It is supposed that these relevant cells might be issued from very small embryonic-like stem cells deposited in the BM during ontogenesis and reside lifelong in the adult BM, and that they could be mobilized into peripheral blood by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor … [find out more >>]
February 18, 2011 Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs)
Mesenchymal stem cells are rare noncycling cells in the human bone marrow. Positive selection using antibodies that recognize marrow fibroblastic cells enrich for a discrete subpopulation of colony forming cells that retain the capacity to differentiate into adipose tissue, cartilage and bone in vitro. … [find out more >>]
January 31, 2011 Expansion of Hematopoietic Stem Cells for Clinical Applications
Cord blood (CB) hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation plays a growing role in the treatment of a wide variety of malignant and non-malignant disorders such as leukemia, lymphoma, lymphoproliferative disorders and bone marrow failures. Cord blood, as a source of HSCs, widens the pool of potential donors compared to bone marrow and peripheral blood stem cells due to its ease of harvest, availability, less stringent HLA matching criteria and lower graft-versus-host disease. However, despite the advantages, the number of CB HSC transplantations recorded in a 2008 survey in Europe is only 7% of the total allogeneic HSC transplantations … [find out more >>]
January 31, 2011 Mechanical Stimulation of MSCs Lead to Smooth Muscle Differentiation
Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy has demonstrated applications in vascular regenerative medicine. Although blood vessels exist in a mechanically dynamic environment, there has been no rigorous, systematic analysis of mechanical stimulation on stem cell differentiation. It is hypothesized that mechanical stimuli, relevant to the vasculature, can differentiate MSCs toward smooth muscle (SMCs) and endothelial cells (ECs) … [find out more >>]
January 25, 2011 MSCs Can Help to Reduce Transplant Rejection Risk
Transplantation of marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), expanded by culture in addition to whole bone marrow, has been shown to enhance engraftment of human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Scientists held hypothesis that there might be an optimum ratio range that could enhance engraftment … [find out more >>]
December 31, 2010 Histone Deacetylases (HDACs)
Transcriptional regulation in eukaryotes occurs within a chromatin setting, and is strongly influenced by the post-translational modification of histones, the building blocks of chromatin, such as methylation, phosphorylation and acetylation. Acetylation is probably the best understood of these modifications: hyperacetylation leads to an increase in the expression of particular genes, and hypoacetylation has the opposite effect … [find out more >>]
December 30, 2010 Hypothesis: Human Stem Cells as Targets for the Aging and Diseases of Aging Processes
While many theories have been proposed for the aging process, and many debates on the matter of aging and the diseases of aging being either the result of the same or independent processes, most have not considered humans as a hierarchical system made up of cybernetically interacting levels of organization. To understand the aging process and the diseases of aging, one must view the human as the result of the total genomic DNA in the single fertilized egg that proliferates, differentiates and develops into an individual of about 100 trillion cells, organized by different cell types (pluri-potent stem cells, progenitor stem cells, terminally differentiated cells) into multiple tissue, organ and organ systems which interact with each other via endogenous factors and with exogenous factors. … [find out more >>]
December 29, 2010 Hypothesis: Soluble Receptors and Organism Aging
It is assumed that production by differentiated cells of soluble receptors to cell growth factors may mediate a feedback mechanism controlling cell growth and differentiation in the body. Based on this assumption, it is hypothesized that with age a concentration of such soluble receptors in the body fluids gradually augments as a consequence of increasing a proportion of the differentiated cell pool … [find out more >>]
December 28, 2010 Platelet Rich Plasma from Umbilical Cord Blood – Properties and Opportunities
Human umbilical cord blood (UCB) is a source of hematopoietic stem cells and progenitor cells. The frequency of hematopoietic stem cells and progenitor cells in UCB is greater than the frequency in bone marrow and peripheral blood. Recently, it was shown that UCB contains various types of stem cells such as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), multipotent adult progenitor cells, unrestricted somatic stem cells, and endothelial progenitor cells … [find out more >>]
December 28, 2010 Amniotic Membrane a Rich Source of Potent Mesenchymal Stem Cells
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a heterogeneous population of stem/progenitor cells with pluripotent capacity to differentiate into mesodermal and non-mesodermal cell lineages. MSCs reside primarily in the bone marrow, but also exist in other sites. Recently, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been isolated from the placenta, specifically from the amniotic membrane … [find out more >>]
November 30, 2010 Structural Changes in the Brain During Process of Aging
Postmortem histological studies have demonstrated that myelination in human brain white matter (WM) continues throughout adolescence and well into adulthood. Scientists used in vivo diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging to test for age-related WM changes in 42 adolescents and 20 young adults. Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) analysis of the adolescent data identified widespread age-related increases in fractional anisotropy (FA) that were most significant in clusters including the body of the corpus callosum and right superior corona radiata … [find out more >>]
November 25, 2010 Aging Immunology. Immune Cells and Mediators in Aging Bodies
A number of age-related changes in the 24-hour hormonal and non-hormonal rhythms have been found in older human beings. Lymphocyte subpopulations present circadian variation of some of their subsets and this variation may influence magnitude and expression of the immune responses. Numerous interactions exist among the nervous, endocrine and immune systems, mediated by neurotransmitters, hormones and cytokines. The aim of this study is to evaluate circadian variations of some endocrine and immune factors in older adults … [find out more >>]
October 28, 2010 Molecular Aging. Insulin/IGF-I Signal Response Gene Polymorphisms in Longevity Studies
A substantial amount of data shows that mutations in genes that share similarities with the human genes involved in the insulin/IGF-I signal response pathway are responsible for an impairment of IGF-I/insulin signaling and for an extension of the Caenorhabditis elegans life span. In particular, the best characterized genes of this ancestral IGF-I/insulin response pathway are: DAF-2, ortholog to the human IGF-I/insulin receptor family; AGE-1, ortholog to human p110 catalytic subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase, which is involved in IGF-I/insulin signal transduction; and DAF-16, ortholog to the human FOXO family of Forkhead transcription factors, which regulates IGF-I/insulin-induced changes in gene transcription … [find out more >>]
October 12, 2010 Cell Death and Aging
When Lockshin and Zakeri discussed the relevance of apoptosis to aging 7 years ago, the common view was that apoptosis would have primarily a negative impact on aging by destroying essential and often irreplaceable cells. That view has now changed to one that acknowledges that there are two general ways in which apoptosis can play a role in aging … [find out more >>]
September 30, 2010 Intrarenal Activation of the Renin-Angiotensin System Precedes the Development of Severe Renal Fibrosis in Aging
The susceptibility to fibrosis and progression of renal disease is mitigated by inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). It is hypothesized that activation of the intrarenal RAS predisposes to renal fibrosis in aging. To test this scientists measured intrarenal expression of angiotensin II type 1 (AT(1)R), type 2 (AT(2)R), and (pro)renin receptors, ACE and ACE-2, as well as pro- and antioxidant enzymes in 3-month-old (young), 14-month-old (middle-aged), and 24-month-old (old) male Sprague-Dawley rats … [find out more >>]
September 29, 2010 Renin-angiotensin System Blockade to Retard Aging
Protein and lipid oxidation - mainly by mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) – was proposed as a crucial determinant of life- and health span. Angiotensin-II enhances ROS production by activating NAD(P)H-oxidase and uncoupling endothelial-NOS. Angiotensin-II also stimulates mtROS production, which depresses mitochondrial energy metabolism … [find out more >>]
September 29, 2010 Potential Biomarkers of Delayed Aging
In laboratory mice, suppression of growth hormone (GH) signaling by spontaneous mutations or targeted disruption of GH- or IGF1-related genes can lead to an impressive increase of longevity. Hypopituitary Ames dwarf (Prop1 df) and GH receptor knockout (GHRKO) mice live 35-70% longer than their normal littermates. Many phenotypic characteristics of these long-lived mutants resemble findings in genetically normal animals subjected to calorie restriction (CR) … [find out more >>]
September 28, 2010 The Promising Potency of Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells
Periodontal ligament (PDL) repair is thought to involve mesenchymal progenitor cells capable of forming fibroblasts, osteoblasts and cementoblasts. However, full characterization of PDL stem cell (SC) populations has not been achieved. A group of scientists isolated and characterized PDLSC and assessed their capability to differentiate into bone, cartilage and adipose tissue … [find out more >>]
September 28, 2010 Cell Senescence in Human Intervertebral Disc
Human intervertebral disc anulus tissue was obtained in a prospective study of cell senescence. Localization of the senescence biomarker beta-galactosidase (senescence associated beta-galactosidase, SA-beta-gal) was used for quantitative determination of the senescent cells percentage … [find out more >>]
August 31, 2010 Testing the Theory of Programmed Death
Subsequent studies confirmed that Weismann's decision to abandon the initial idea of programmed death was a wise one. Many scientific tests of the programmed death hypothesis were made since Weismann proposed his theory, and some of them are summarized here (for more details) … [find out more >>]
August 31, 2010 Evolutionary Theory of Aging vs. Life History Theory
The evolutionary theory of aging may be considered as part of a more general life history theory, which tries to explain how evolution designs organisms to achieve reproductive success (i.e., avoid extinction) … Current evolutionary explanations of aging and limited longevity of biological species are based on two major evolutionary theories: the mutation accumulation theory and the antagonistic pleiotropy theory … [find out more >>]
August 24, 2010 Histone Deacetylase Role in Maintaining the Self-renewal and Pluripotency of MSCs
Histone deacetylase (HDAC) is an important therapeutic target in cancer. Two of the main anticancer mechanisms of HDAC inhibitors are induction of terminal differentiation and inhibition of cell proliferation. To investigate the role of HDAC in maintenance of self-renewal and cell proliferation, scientists treated mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that originated from adipose tissue or umbilical cord blood with valproic acid (VPA) and sodium butyrate (NaBu) … [find out more >>]
July 29, 2010 Aging, Environmental Exposures and DNA Methylation
Epigenetic control of gene transcription is critical for normal human development and cellular differentiation. While alterations of epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation have been linked to cancers and many other human diseases, interindividual epigenetic variations in normal tissues due to aging, environmental factors, or innate susceptibility are poorly characterized. The plasticity, tissue-specific nature, and variability of gene expression are related to epigenomic states that vary across individuals. Thus, population-based investigations are needed to further our understanding of the fundamental dynamics of normal individual epigenomes … [find out more >>]
July 28, 2010 Epigenetics and Aging
Aging is a multifaceted process characterized by genetic and epigenetic changes in the genome. The genetic component of aging received initially all the attention. Telomere attrition and accumulation of mutations due to a progressive deficiency in the repair of DNA damage with age remain leading causes of genomic instability. However, epigenetic mechanisms have now emerged as key contributors to the alterations of genome structure and function that accompany aging … [find out more >>]
June 30, 2010 Unique Properties of Fetal Cells
Anti-inflammatory effects of murine fetal liver (FL) cells were studied using BALB/c mouse contact hypersensitivity (paw edema) model. Paw weight differences, lymphatic organ weights, hematological and histological indices as well as proinflammatory (TNF-alpha) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokine levels in sera were evaluated. … [find out more >>]
June 24, 2010 Short Peptide Administration of Pineal Gland and Thymus to Elderly Persons Increased Life Span and Quality of Life
Researchers clinically assessed the geroprotective effects of thymic (Thymalin) and pineal (Epithalamin) peptide bioregulators in 266 elderly and older persons during 6-8 years. The bioregulators were applied for the first 2-3 years of observation. The obtained results convincingly showed the ability of the bioregulators to normalize the basic functions of the human organism, i.e. to improve the indices of cardiovascular, endocrine, immune and nervous systems, homeostasis and metabolism … [find out more >>]
June 22, 2010 Ala-Glu-Asp-Gly Peptide Induces Telomere Elongation in Human Fetal Cell Culture
It was shown that treatment of normal human diploid cells with Epithalon (Ala-Glu-Asp-Gly) induced expression of telomerase catalytic subunit, its enzymatic activity, and elongation of telomeres. So scientists studied the effect of this peptide on proliferative potential of human fetal fibroblasts. … [find out more >>]
June 18, 2010 Geroprotective Effect of Ala-Glu-Asp-Gly Peptide
Geroprotective properties of peptides are associated with their influence on systems maintaining homeostasis in the body and regulation of mechanisms underlying aging. Peptides normalize synthesis of tissue-specific proteins and regulate expression of genes responsible for proliferation and differentiation of cells. Thus, peptides maintain normal physiological functions and decelerate aging … [find out more >>]
May 28, 2010 Biological Features of Oral Mucosa Lamina Propria Stem Cells
Wounds within the oral mucosa, similarly to foetal wounds, exhibit rapid healing with reduced scarring. It was hypothesised that a progenitor population resident within the oral mucosal lamina propria (OMLP) contributes to this preferential healing … [find out more >>]
May 26, 2010 Novel Stem Cell Population in Adult Human Oral Mucosa
The highly regenerative capacity of the human adult oral mucosa suggests the existence of a robust stem cell (SC) population in its lamina propria (OMLP). The purpose of this study was to characterize the availability, growth, immunophenotype, and potency of this presumable SC population … [find out more >>]
May 24, 2010 Neonatal Stem Cells and Adult Stem Cells in Ischemic Protection
Bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) may be a novel treatment modality for organ ischemia, possibly through beneficial paracrine mechanisms. However, stem cells from older hosts exhibit decreased function during stress. It is therefore hypothesized that (1) BMSCs derived from neonatal hosts could provide protection to ischemic myocardium, and (2) neonatal stem cells could enhance postischemic myocardial recovery above that seen with adult stem cell therapy … [find out more >>]
April 22, 2010 Lungs are Populated with Donor Cells after Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplantation
Many of the body's tissues once thought to be only locally regenerative may, in fact, be actively replaced by circulating stem cells after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Localization of donor-derived cells ("chimerism") has recently been shown to occur in the lungs of mice after either hematopoietic stem cell transplantation or infusion of cultured marrow. … [find out more >>]
April 8, 2010 Placenta in Wound Healing – Compounds of which May Help
Human placental extracts are known to help wound healing. Rapid migration of neutrophils to the wound site is a prerequisite to the wound healing process. Gel filtration analysis of heat-treated placental extract gave the initial cue to the small nature of the migration promoting factor of the extract. … [find out more >>]
March 19, 2010 Rapamycin and Life Extension
Inhibition of the TOR signalling pathway by genetic or pharmacological intervention extends lifespan in invertebrates, including yeast, nematodes and fruit flies; however, whether inhibition of mTOR signalling can extend lifespan in a mammalian species was unknown. Scientists report that rapamycin, an inhibitor of the mTOR pathway, extends median and maximal lifespan of both male and female mice when fed beginning at 600 days of age. … [find out more >>]
March 10, 2010 Muscle-derived Stem Cells
Skeletal muscle has been recognized as an essential source of progenitor or satellite cells, which are primarily responsible for muscle regeneration. Recently, muscle has also been identified as a valuable source of postnatal stem cells that appear to be distinct from satellite cells and possess the ability to differentiate into other cell lineage … [find out more >>]
February 25, 2010 Cord Blood Cells Produce Anti-inflammatory Cytokine IL-10 after Transplantation
It previous studies it has been shown that intravenous administration of human umbilical cord blood (HUCB) mononuclear cells to mice improved blood glucose levels, survival, atherosclerosis and prostate cancer. In this study, scientists examined the effect of HUCB cells on the production of IL-10 levels in IL-10 knockout mice. … [find out more >>]
February 11, 2010 Aging Skin and Repair Techniques
Skin appearance is a primary indicator of age. During the last decade, substantial progress has been made toward understanding underlying mechanisms of human skin aging. This understanding provides the basis for current use and new development of antiaging treatments … [find out more >>]
January 29, 2010 Anticancer and Antiaging Activities of Ashwagandha, the Traditional Indian Herb
Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) is an Ayurvedic shrub that forms a common ingredient of health supplements, tonics, and Indian home remedies designed to promote health and quality of life. Though sustained through experience and history, there are only a limited laboratory studies and experimental evidence to its effects … [find out more >>]
November 26, 2009 Fetal Cells
Fetal cells multiply significantly more rapidly and more often in culture. They can survive at lower oxygen tensions than those tolerated by mature cells and are therefore more resistant to hypoxia during in vitro manipulations. They also typically lack long extensions and strong intercellular adhesions … [find out more >>]
November 20, 2009 Polyphenols In Fruits And Its Anti-oxidative Stress Activity
Fresh fruit and vegetables exert multiple biological effects on the gastrointestinal mucosa. With the aim to assess whether apple extracts counteract oxidative or indomethacin induced damage to gastric epithelial cells in vitro and to rat gastric mucosa in vivo … [find out more >>]
November 16, 2009 SIRT1 And The Neuronal Survival Due To The Apoptotic Stimuli
The mechanism involved in neuronal apoptosis is largely unknown. Studies performed on neuronal cell cultures provide information about the pathways which orchestrate the process of neuronal loss and potential drugs for the treatment of neurological disorders. … [find out more >>]
October 26, 2009 Fetal Cells and Maternal Renal Function
It has been reported that fetal cells migrate into maternal blood and organs. Since these fetal chimeric cells could be involved in maternal allogeneic tolerance to the fetus, the fetal chimeric cells might be implicated in maternal-fetal immunology and development of maternal autoimmune diseases. However, the mechanism and role of fetal microchimerism remains unclear … [find out more >>]
October 8, 2009 Novel Players in Aging – Spermidine
Ageing results from complex genetically and epigenetically programmed processes that are elicited in part by noxious or stressful events that cause programmed cell death. Scientists report that administration of spermidine, a natural polyamine whose intracellular concentration declines during human ageing, markedly extended the lifespan of yeast, flies and worms, and human immune cells … [find out more >>]
October 5, 2009 Very Small Embryonic-Like Stem Cells
Recently, scientists purified a rare population of primitive Sca1(+)/Lin(-)/CD45(-) cells from murine bone marrow by employing multiparameter cell sorting. Based on flow cytometric and gene expression analysis, these cells have been shown to express several markers of embryonic stem cells and were accordingly termed Very Small Embryonic-Like stem cells (VSELs) … [find out more >>]
September 18, 2009 Sun Effect on Facial Skin Aging
Quantitative methods were developed to assess the interrelation between age and sunlight on the facial skin of healthy women living in the same sunny area … [find out more >>]
September 14, 2009 Aged Stem Cell Properties in Wound Healing
Local injection of hematopoietic stem cell-enriched cells, including mouse lin- cells, accelerates vascularization in animal injury models, apparently by release of angiogenic factors … [find out more >>]
September 8, 2009 Aging Prevention by Cosmetic Procedures
In aesthetic dermatology, filling and laser treatments are two essential techniques. Several recent studies on calcium hydroxyapatite in filling treatments and facial volumetry, in esthetics, but also in HIV patients, have been published. It was also tested in accentuated melomental folds where it is superior to hyaluronic acid … [find out more >>]
August 6, 2009 Aging Immune System
Effects of aging on immune system are widespread. The development of T and B cells declines with age. The functions of matured T and B cell also decline with age. Consequently, infections present major clinical problems for elderly patients … [find out more >>]
August 3, 2009 Aging May Severely Affect Chemokine Production In Aging Mice
The technique of bulk cultivation of aged mouse spleen cells in high concentration of IL-2 was employed to obtain NK/LAK cells in sufficient number and enrichment for studies on the effects of aging on their functions … [find out more >>]
June 17, 2009 Autologous Cells for Brain Repair
Autologous brain cell transplantation might be useful for repairing lesions and restoring function of the central nervous system. Scientists have demonstrated that adult monkey brain cells, obtained from cortical biopsy and kept in culture for a few weeks, exhibit neural progenitor characteristics which make them useful for brain repair … [find out more >>]
May 6, 2009 Stem Cells in Aging Process
Aging is associated with a progressive failing of tissues and organs of the human body leading to a large number of age-related diseases. Regenerative medicine is an emerging clinical discipline that aims to employ cellular medicines (normal cells, ex vivo expanded cells, or tissue-engineered organs) to restore the functions of damaged or defective tissues and organs and thus to "rejuvenate" the failing aging body … [find out more >>]
November 19, 2008 Sirtuin and its Anti-aging Activity
Aging is characterized by a progressive deterioration of physiological functions and metabolic processes. Healthy aging remains one of the ideals of modern society. In aging and in diseases associated with the elderly, such as Alzheimer's or Parkinson's, the loss of cells in vital structures or organs may be related to several factors, among which the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by mitochondria is a common denominator, one that leads to DNA damage, apoptosis and death … [find out more >>]
July 24, 2008 N-Acetylserotonin and Melatonin Antiaging Properties
It is generally accepted that antioxidant properties of melatonin significantly contribute to its antiaging effect. Antioxidant effects of N-acetylserotonin (NAS), a melatonin precursor and metabolite, might predict its antiaging action as well. The antiaging effect of NAS was studied in female retired breeders and male C3H mice. Both NAS and melatonin administered with drinking water prolonged life span in male animals by about 20% versus control animals (p < 0.01) but did not affect the life span of female mice … [find out more >>]
July 9, 2008 Stem Cell-derived Hepatic Progenitor Cells Engraft in Recipient Livers with Limited Capacity of Liver Tissue Formation
Directed endodermal differentiation of murine embryonic stem (ES) cells gives rise to a subset of cells with a hepatic phenotype. Such ES cell-derived hepatic progenitor cells (ES-HPC) can acquire features of hepatocytes in vitro, but fail to form substantial hepatocyte clusters in vivo. Scientist investigated whether this is due to inefficient engraftment or an immature phenotype of ES-HPC … [find out more >>]
June 30, 2008 Melatonin and its Functions
Melatonin is believed to scavenge the highly toxic hydroxyl radical, the peroxynitrite anion, and possibly the peroxyl radical. Also, secondarily, it reportedly scavenges the superoxide anion radical and it quenches singlet oxygen. Additionally, it stimulates mRNA levels for superoxide dismutase and the activities of glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (all of which are antioxidative enzymes), thereby increasing its antioxidative capacity. Also, melatonin, at least at some sites, inhibits nitric oxide synthase, a pro-oxidative enzyme … [find out more >>]
June 20, 2008 Proteasomes, Mitochondrial Function, and Cellular Senescence
Proteasome plays fundamental roles in the removal of oxidized proteins and in the normal degradation of short-lived proteins. It has been known that the impairment in proteasome observed during the replicative senescence of human fibroblasts has significant effects on MAPK signaling, proliferation, life span, senescent phenotype, and protein oxidative status. These studies have demonstrated that proteasome inhibition and replicative senescence caused accumulation of intracellular protein carbonyl content. … [find out more >>]
June 18, 2008 The Olive Constituent Oleuropein and Life Span Extension
Normal human fibroblasts undergo replicative senescence due to both genetic and environmental factors. Senescence and aging can be further accelerated by exposure of cells to a variety of oxidative agents that contribute among other effects to the accumulation of damaged proteins. The proteasome, a multicatalytic nonlysosomal protease, has impaired function during aging, while its increased expression delays senescence in human fibroblasts. … [find out more >>]
June 16, 2008 Ginseng against DNA Damage
A majority of potential radioprotective synthetic compounds have demonstrated limited clinical application owing to their inherent toxicity, and thus, the seeking of naturally occurring herbal products, such as ginseng, for their radioprotective capability has become an attractive alternative. … [find out more >>]
April 23, 2008 The Pineal Gland and Melatonin in Relation to Aging
Within recent years, many investigators have implicated the pineal gland and melatonin in the processes of both aging and age-related diseases. These theories stem from the importance of melatonin in a number of biological functions and the fact that melatonin production in the organism is gradually lost throughout life, such that in very old individuals of any species the circadian melatonin rhythm is bearly discernible. … [find out more >>]
April 22, 2008 Pineal Gland, A Biological Clock
A precise temporal program for growth, fertility, aging, and death exists in the "pineal complex" of the brain. It tracks, like a "clock," the ontogenetic phases of our life program. Transplantation of a very old pineal gland into the thymus or under the kidney capsule of a young mouse produces acceleration of aging and early death. Scientist investigated the existence of such an inner biological clock on the assumption that a time exists in the pineal program when the pineal gland actively starts to deliver aging and death "signals" to the body, thus accomplishing its genetically inscribed sequence … [find out more >>]
January 29, 2008 Lipid Peroxidation, Lipofuscin and Anti-aging Drug Centrophenoxine in Age-related Decline in Multiple Unit Action Potentials
Changes in lipid peroxidation, lipofuscin concentration, and multiple unit activity (MUA recorded in conscious animals) in the CA3 region were studied in the hippocampus of male Wistar rats aged 4, 8, 16, and 24 months … [find out more >>]
January 28, 2008 Decrease of Na+, K(+)-ATPase Activity in Aging Brain
Effects of ageing on Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity in crude synaptosomal fractions from the rat brain parietal cortex, hippocampus, striatum and thalamus has been studied … [find out more >>]
January 25, 2008 Anti-ageing Therapeutic Potential of L-deprenyl
Scientists investigated the influence of chronically administered L-deprenyl on normal ageing-related parameters: multiple unit action potentials, the activities of the enzymes Na(+), K(+)-adenosine triphosphatase, glutathione-s-transferase and glutathione peroxidase, and the levels of lipid peroxidation products and lipofuscin contents in the brain regions (cerebral cortex, hippocampus, striatum and thalamus) of 24-month-old rats … [find out more >>]
January 24, 2008 Curcumin and its Anti-aging Potential
This study investigated the influence of chronically administered curcumin on normal ageing-related parameters: lipid peroxidation, lipofuscin concentration and intraneuronal lipofuscin accumulation, activities of the enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and Na(+), K(+), -adenosine triphosphatase (Na(+), K(+), -ATPase) in different brain regions (cerebral cortex, hippocampus, cerebellum and medulla) of 6- and 24-month-old rats … [find out more >>]
January 9, 2008 Growth Hormone Promotes Aging Process in Mice
Ames dwarf mice and Snell dwarf mice lack growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), live much longer than their normal siblings, and exhibit many symptoms of delayed aging … [find out more >>]
January 9, 2008 Rejuvenating Compound NT020
During natural aging, adult stem cells are known to have a reduced restorative capacity and are more vulnerable to oxidative stress resulting in a reduced ability of the body to heal itself … [find out more >>]
December 21, 2007 HLA-A2 and its Role in Alzheimer�s Disease
Scientists suggests that the age of onset for Alzheimer's disease is influenced by the HLA-A2 gene or a neighboring gene on chromosome 6 that is closely linked to HLA-A2. In the 207 Alzheimer's disease patients who were studied, those who had the HLA-A2 gene developed Alzheimer's disease at a younger age than those who did not carry the gene. … [find out more >>]
December 20, 2007 Bad Habits Help to Avoid Parkinson's Disease
Inverse associations of Parkinson's disease (PD) with cigarette smoking, coffee drinking, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use have been reported individually, but their joint effects have not been examined. To quantify associations with PD for the individual, two-way and three-way combinations of these factors, a case-control association study with 1,186 PD patients and 928 controls was conducted. Subjects completed a structured questionnaire regarding smoking, coffee, and NSAID consumption … [find out more >>]
November 30, 2007 Examples of Fetal Cell Transplantation
Fetal cells are the cells used to treat multiple disorders. These days due to ethical issues fetal cells can not be taken as a norm. Cord blood is an alternative of the fetal cells as it has many similarities with fetal cells. Here we show few examples of fetal cell treatment, which may be similar for cord blood cells. … [find out more >>]
November 30, 2007 Methionine Sulfoxide Reductases – Antiaging Effect
Oxidative damage to proteins is considered to be one of the major causes of aging and age-related diseases, and thus mechanisms have evolved to prevent or reverse these modifications … [find out more >>]
October 4, 2007 Methionine-deficient Diet and Mouse Lifespan
A diet deficient in the amino acid methionine has previously been shown to extend lifespan in several stocks of inbred rats. Scientists report that a methionine-deficient (Meth-R) diet also increases maximal lifespan in (BALB/cJ x C57BL/6 J)F1 mice … [find out more >>]
October 3, 2007 Lipoapoptosis and Body Aging
The balance between cell division and cell death determines the cell population of an organ. When cell death exceeds cell replacement in an organ, a functional deficit is created … [find out more >>]
August 30, 2007 A Third Link Connecting Aging with Double Strand Break Repair
Until recently, the connection between aging and DNA repair has rested on two classes of observation. First, DNA damage and unrepaired double-strand breaks (DSBs) accumulate with age. Second, several defects in DNA repair genes are associated with early onset of age-related diseases and other signs of premature aging. Now, a third link has emerged … [find out more >>]
August 29, 2007 DNA Repair Systems and the Maintenance and Longevity of Stem Cells
Cellular DNA is under constant challenge by exogenous and endogenous genotoxic stress, which results in both transient and accumulated DNA damage and genomic instability. All cells are equipped with DNA damage response pathways that trigger DNA repair, cell cycle arrest, and, if needed, apoptosis, to eliminate DNA damage or damaged cells. … [find out more >>]
August 27, 2007 Cardiac Repair with Bone Marrow Cells. Experimental Survey.
Heart failure associated with ischemic heart disease is a growing, worldwide epidemic. Traditionally, the myocardium has been considered to have a very limited capacity for self-regeneration. Therefore, the loss of vasculature and cardiac muscle cells that occurs during myocardial infarction leads to progressive heart failure in up to 50% of survivors. Because no currently available therapy is directly targeted toward replacement of lost cardiac tissue, the recent identification of adult stem cells has ignited significant interest in the possibility of using these cells for cardiovascular regeneration … [find out more >>]
July 4, 2007 Transplantation from Old to Young?
As more older patients become candidates for transplantation in the treatment of hematologic malignancies and nonhematologic diseases, the effects of aging on the homing of stem/progenitor cells are clinically relevant yet remain largely unexplored … [find out more >>]
June 30, 2007 Mesenchymal Stem Cells
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are bone marrow populating cells, different from hematopoietic stem cells, which possess an extensive proliferative potential and ability to differentiate into various cell types, including: osteocytes, adipocytes, chondrocytes, myocytes, cardiomyocytes and neurons. MSCs seem to represent a future powerful tool in regenerative medicine, therefore they are particularly important in medical research. … [find out more >>]
October 18, 2006 Aging and Metabolism
The earliest manifestations of aging are changes in metabolism that result in increased fat deposition and reduced muscle mass, which lead to increased likelihood of developing "metabolic disease" (type II diabetes, hyperlipidemia, arteriosclerosis, and hypertension). Increased fat deposition in young (5 months old), in middle-aged (14 months old), and old (26 months old) male BN rats is illustrated by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scans. These metabolic changes are associated with declining GH, IGF-I, and sex steroid levels in the face of relative increases in glucocorticoid production, as well as insulin resistance and leptin resistance. Anorexia is commonly associated with aging … [find out more >>]
October 6, 2006 Altruistic Ageing
Ageing occurs in organisms that range from yeast to humans, but also in non-living systems such as automobiles. Do organisms become "rusty" and age like cars or is there a genetic program that guarantees that a specific age is reached? Gerontologists widely support theories of ageing that are based on the non-adaptive accumulation of stochastic damage to macromolecules that is caused by oxygen and other toxic species following the decline of the force of natural selection and the consequent decline in protection and repair mechanisms with increasing age. However, a series of pioneering genetic studies … [find out more >>]
September 26, 2006 The Telomere and Telomerase Connection to Aging and Cancer
Telomeres and telomerase are described. Replicative senescence, its crisis stage and evolution of maignancies are reviewed. Direct evidence that links telomere shortening to replicative senescence is shown. … [find out more >>]
September 26, 2006 Evolutionary Considerations in Aging and Cancer
Is cell division a risky process that accumulates mutations? How to prevent pre-malignant cells from dividing after accumulating only a few mutations, and block their progression? What are the natural tumor prevention strategies? How do senescent cells impact aging and tumorigenesis? … [find out more >>]
August 19, 2006 Aging: a Scientific Release of the Problem
A scientific release of aging problem is reviewed. What is aging after all? How to reduce the aging and reach the longevity? What is the goal of anti-aging medicine? How and why do we age prematurely? Can gene therapy and stem cell therapy be used as anti-aging treatment? The understanding of history of aging problem, theories of aging, pathophysiology and pathology of aging, as well as possible treatment programs could answer all these questions … [find out more >>]
August 18, 2006 Rejuvenation of Aging Skin
Methods of rejuvenating the aging skin are reviewed. Topical medications with retinoids (tretinoin). Cosmeceuticals, including examples like alpha and beta hydroxy acids, kinetin and other cytokinins. Cosmetic skin rejuvenation procedures, including Botulinum toxin, injectable dermal fillers, nonablative light-based procedures, chemical peels, dermabrasion, laser resurfacing and cosmetic surgery. General rules for preservation of youthful skin appearance are also reviewed … [find out more >>]
August 17, 2006 Lipopigments and Aging Nervous System
A principal marker of brain vulnerability, stress, aging, and related pathology is represented by lipopigments � lipofuscin and ceroid. During ontogenesis, neuronal lipopigment accumulations are significantly correlated with important changes in nerve cell morphology and biochemistry. In the aged neurons, lipopigments are present in all cellular compartments. Moreover, neuronal lipopigment accumulations coexist with glial lipopigment storage, especially in microglia. Owing to their transporting properties, and the migration capacity of microglia, glial cells deposit lipopigment clusters in pericapillary areas. Thus, lipopigment conglomerates appear in the whole nervous tissue, creating specific patterns of lipopigment architectonics … [find out more >>]
July 14, 2006 Anti-aging and Self-regulation
The components of regimen for prolonging survival and decreasing mortality rate are reviewed. The role of meditation and meditation-like practices in reducing oxidative stress and other forms of life-span reducing stress, as well as in reducing metabolic rate to extend longevity is analyzed. Physical aerobic exercise and special dietary programs with calorie restriction are also mentioned as the other primary components of the life-span prolonging regimen … [find out more >>]
June 29, 2006 Multiple Reasons of Aging
For much of the 20th century, the accumulation of a considerable amount of information about the processes of aging did not reveal the underlying mechanisms. Toward the end of that century, the biological basis for aging became very much clearer. It became apparent that the best strategy for animals� survival was to develop to an adult, but not to invest resources in maintaining the body, or soma, indefinitely. In their natural environment, animals do not survive environmental hazards (predators, disease, starvation, and drought) to reach a long life span. There is thus a trade-off between the investment of resources in reproduction, and the survival time of the soma … [find out more >>]
June 28, 2006 The Anti-stress, Anti-impairment and Anti-aging Therapy for the Brain
A new direction in anti-aging medicine is the long-term administration of nutraceuticals (functional foods) coupled with regenerative bioactive factors. In conformity with their main objectives, these therapies may do one or more of the following: (i) decelerate, antagonize, and remove the "causes of aging," as well as diversify, improve, and efficiently increase the "causes of longevity"; (ii) have anti-stress, anti-impairment, and anti-aging actions;4 and (iii) synergistically protect, regulate, and recover the three key organs (liver, heart, and brain) of the human being. In anti-aging medicine, the role, characteristics, and functions of the brain determine specific objectives in order to … [find out more >>]
June 15, 2006 Hormesis and Aging
Hormesis is the term used to describe biological phenomena that are often adverse or detrimental but become beneficial when applied at low levels. The concept of biological hormesis is as important as that of homeostasis for the survival of the organism. The basic biological trait is the organism�s ability to resist and adapt appropriately to both internal and external stresses, and the hallmark of aging is the organism�s inability to withstand stress … [find out more >>]
May 25, 2006 Senescent Cell Antigen
During aging, changes in proteins occur that alter their function and render them immunogenic. These "neoantigens" are recognized by physiologic autoantibodies. Physiologic autoantibodies and their corresponding antigens offer therapeutic strategies for disease intervention through the innate immune response. Early studies done in the 1970s showed humans and animals to have physiologic antibodies that bind to a neoantigen called senescent cell antigen (SCA), which appears on senescent and damaged cells and initiates their removal by macrophages … [find out more >>]
May 12, 2006 Aging, – Simply Wear and Tear?
Aging is frequently viewed, albeit with inadequate logical justification, as solely the result of "wear and tear", as though it were a set of generic processes, intrinsic to the passage of time. Bluntly, this point of view suggests that we get old because we "wear out". The stance is often assumed to be obvious, self-explanatory, and without any need for support, logical or factual. Accurate within a very narrow conceptual domain, the view is nonetheless parochial and fails when applied in a wider biological framework … [find out more >>]
April 25, 2006 Lipofuscin and the Aging of Nervous System
Lipofuscin is membrane-bound cellular waste that can be neither degraded nor ejected from the cell but can only be diluted through cell division and subsequent growth. The fate of postmitotic cells is to accumulate lipofuscin, which as an "aging pigment" has been considered a reliable biomarker for the age of cells such as neurons and, by extension, their hosts. In the aging human brain, deposits of lipofuscin are not uniformly distributed but are concentrated in specific regions of functional interest … [find out more >>]
April 19, 2006 Effect of rhGH on Body Composition, Vascular Function and Structure in Old Male Wistar Rats
The process of aging affects negatively both cardiovascular system and body composition. On the other hand, the hormones of the somatotrophic axis, growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), whose production is reduced by age, are involved in the regulation of the cardiovascular system. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of GH on body composition, vascular function and structure in old male rats. Old (20 months) and adult (4 months) male Wistar rats were used … [find out more >>]
March 21, 2006 Lipofuscin and Melanin in Aging Cells
Early histologists observed that human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) contained two kinds of pigment granules, melanin and lipoidal granules. However, it was not until 1961 that a histochemical study by Streeten established that the lipoidal granules were similar to lipofuscin, the "age pigment" or "wear-and-tear pigment" of brain and other organs. She also noted that certain staining features of these RPE lipoidal granules were common to rod outer segments (ROS) … [find out more >>]
February 27, 2006 Age-Related Changes in Mitochondrial Function
A number of studies have demonstrated that mitochondrial integrity declines as a function of age. Age-dependent increases in the level of damaged DNA have been commonly assessed through biomarkers such as the formation of 8-ox-2-deoxoguanosine (oxo8dG) in post mitotic tissue such as brain. The levels of oxo8dG are significantly higher in mitochondrial compared to nuclear DNA. Reasons for these differences are thought to include the proximity of mitochondrial DNA to the source of oxidants and the lack of any protective histone covering. This postulated and observed increased sensitivity of mitochondrial DNA to oxidative damage has led to the concept of the "vicious cycle" in which an initial ROS-induced impairment of mitochondria leads to increased oxidant production that, in turn, leads to further mitochondrial damage … [find out more >>]
February 23, 2006 Aging Brain: DNA Damage or Neuron Loss?
Compelling evidence in the literature points to a central role of accumulation of nuclear (n) DNA damage in the aging process of postmitotic cells such as neurons in the central nervous system (CNS). However, the aging process does not affect the CNS uniformly. Rather various brain regions and types of neurons differ substantially in the amount of nDNA damage accumulation during aging. Specifically, more nDNA damage was found in the aging hippocampus than in the aging cerebellum … [find out more >>]
February 14, 2006 Hormone Replacement Therapy
It is tempting to believe that restoration of hormone levels to those that exist in young persons should universally be a desirable goal. In principle, the approach is simple, but hormone replacement therapy is a long-term proposition, possibly continuing for the rest of a patient�s life. The circulating levels of growth hormone, testosterone, estrogen, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and other hormones decrease with age. Supplementations with melatonin or DHEA, or injection of growth hormone, have all been promoted in highly visible books. However, the question of whether melatonin levels also decrease with age is controversial … [find out more >>]
February 8, 2006 Telomere Shortening with Age in Murine Chondrocytes
Linear chromosomes are capped by structures known as telomeres. In mammals, telomeres contain tandem repeats of TTAGGG double-stranded DNA. Telomere length varies among mammals. For example, in humans, telomeres are typically 10�15 kb whereas, in some strains of mice telomeres are approximately 100 kb in length. Telomerase, a nucleoprotein reverse transcriptase, elongates telomeres. However, most normal somatic human cells do not express telomerase activity and are unable to maintain telomere length with ongoing cell divisions. As a result, telomere length in replicating somatic cells tends to decrease with age in vivo and with time in culture at a rate of approximately 100 base pairs per cell division … [find out more >>]
January 20, 2006 Morphology of the Ageing Brain and Biophysical Properties of Aged Neurons
Age-related changes in the morphology of neurons are selective and it seems that there is no universal pattern across the entire brain. However, one finding that does seem to be consistent is that in most brain areas neuronal loss does not have a significant role in age-related cognitive decline. Rather, small, region-specific changes in dendritic branching and spine density are more characteristic of the effects of ageing on neuronal morphology. This is contrary to early investigations of aged nervous tissue in which profound neuron loss was reported to occur in advanced age … [find out more >>]
January 16, 2006 The Three Bridges to Longevity. Bridge Three (The Nanotechnology/AI Revolution)
The hallmarks of Bridge Three include development of artificial intelligence (AI) and molecular nanotechnology (MNT). Artificial Intelligence refers to non biological (computer) intelligence, while nanotechnology is a term coined by Dr. K. Eric Drexler at MIT in 1978 and which he elaborated in his seminal book, "Engines of Creation". MNT refers to machines that operate on the scale of nanometers and which will be able to create molecules one atom at a time much like our cellular machinery does today. As AI and MNT technologies combine with and are incorporated into our biological bodies, serious increases in human lifespan well beyond 120 years will be not only possible, but highly probable. … [find out more >>]
January 10, 2006 The Three Bridges to Longevity. Bridge Two (The Biotechnology Revolution)
Bridge Two consists largely of the biotechnology revolution, which has already begun and which will find its full expression over the course on the next 15 years. Among the most important items of Bridge Two will include stem cell therapy, therapeutic cloning, recombinant gene technology or "pharming" (genetically modifying bacteria, plants and farm animals to produce desired proteins) and developing a deeper understanding of the human genome with the ultimate goal of creating designer proteins ("proteomics"). All of these therapies are very exciting and will change medicine as we know it, so that is completely unrecognizable from the medicine of today … [find out more >>]
January 6, 2006 The Three Bridges to Longevity. Bridge One
There are several Bridge One technologies that people can do themselves without the aid of medical professionals. These include things like proper diet, caloric restriction, adequate exercise, stress management, aggressive nutritional supplementation, detoxification and proper care of your brain. There are also things that can be done with the help of medical professionals. For example, you can have your genomics tested; you can have tests done to determine specifics of your metabolism such as methylation, inflammation and glycation defects … [find out more >>]
November 24, 2005 Obituary � "Old Age"
Old age is given as the only cause of death in an increasing number of elderly patients who die each year, yet many have known pathologies and co-morbidities that go unrecorded. There can be little doubt that advanced age is a significant contributory factor in the deaths of the elderly but who and what is old? … [find out more >>]
November 22, 2005 Drug Kinetics during Aging
The age-related changes in the functions and composition of the human body require adjustments of drug selection and dosage for old individuals. Drug excretion via the kidneys declines with age, the elderly should therefore be treated as renally insufficient patients. The metabolic clearance is primarily reduced with drugs that display high hepatic extraction ('blood flow-limited metabolism'), whereas the metabolism of drugs with low hepatic extraction ('capacity-limited metabolism') usually is not diminished. Reduction of metabolic drug elimination is more pronounced in malnourished or frail subjects … [find out more >>]
October 26, 2005 Rejuvenation of Aged with the Help of Young
Ageing of metazoans can be generally characterized as a progressive decline of tissue and organ function, accompanied by increased oxidative damage, mitochondrial dysfunction, endocrine imbalance and genome instability. Tissue regenerative capacity also declines with age, and in tissues such as muscle, blood, liver and brain this decline has been attributed to a diminished responsiveness of tissue-specific stem and progenitor cells … [find out more >>]
October 19, 2005 Chromosomal Damage and Ageing
The ageing process consists of structural alterations and functional declines in body systems with a consequent impairment of homeostasis with increased vulnerability to age-related diseases, ultimately leading to death. The effects of ageing in individuals appear to be a combination of genetically programmed processes and genetic alterations induced by exogenous and endogenous factors. The increase of cellular components, damaged by highly reactive free radicals and associated with decreased DNA repair capability, play a central role in genetic instability, a common marker of cancer and age-associated degenerative diseases … [find out more >>]
September 20, 2005 Carotenoids, ROS and Immunity
The traditional concept of ROS function is that they indiscriminately destroy cell components. However, exciting research has more recently elucidated the role of these reactive species in signal transduction, gene regulation, and disease etiology. This has infused new excitement and challenges into research on the possible role of carotenoids as antioxidants in disease prevention. This discussion will attempt to address the complex interaction of carotenoids and the immune response, and how this interaction may relate to cancer etiology … [find out more >>]
September 13, 2005 Glutathione and Its Action
Glutathione (γ-glutamyl-cysteinyl-glycine; GSH) is the most abundant low-molecular-weight thiol, and GSH/glutathione disulfide is the major redox couple in animal cells. The synthesis of GSH from glutamate, cysteine, and glycine is catalyzed sequentially by two cytosolic enzymes, γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase and GSH synthetase. Compelling evidence shows that GSH synthesis is regulated primarily by γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase activity, cysteine availability, and GSH feedback inhibition. Animal and human studies demonstrate that adequate protein nutrition is crucial for the maintenance of GSH homeostasis. In addition, enteral or parenteral cystine, methionine, N-acetylcysteine, and L-2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylate are effective precursors of cysteine for tissue GSH synthesis … [find out more >>]
September 8, 2005 Immune Function, Dietary Restriction and Aging Benefits
Dietary restriction is beneficial in preventing a multitude of diseases, many of which may involve the immune system in their etiology. Recent reports examining dietary restriction focused on T lymphocytes and macrophages. Dietary restriction delays the onset of T-lymphocyte-dependent autoimmune disease; this may be attributed to improved antioxidant defense mechanisms, blunting shifts in T-lymphocyte subset proportions and preventing DNA mutation frequencies. The beneficial effects of dietary restriction were shown in both the CD4 and CD8 T-lymphocyte subsets as well as in various immune compartments such as the spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes, peripheral blood, thymus, and salivary glands … [find out more >>]
September 8, 2005 PPARγ, Caloric Restriction, Fat and Ageing
The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) helps to translate 'what you eat' into 'what you are' because it allows dietary fatty acids (PPARγ) ligands to modulate gene transcription. Treatments for diabetes include PPARγ activators, as they sensitize the body to insulin. Scientific understanding of PPARγ function has recently been enhanced by a flurry of human and mouse genetic studies, and the characterization of new PPARγ ligands. This insight has led scientists to propose that modulating PPARγ activity, rather than activating it, might be the most effective strategy for treating metabolic disorders, as this will improve glucose homeostasis while preventing adipogenesis … [find out more >>]
August 16, 2005 Micronutrients in Aging
The increase in average life expectancy is resulting in an increasing prevalence of major invalidating illnesses, such as dementia, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer. We need to understand the mechanisms underlying the aging process so that we can help delay it. This is an absolute priority. The so-called free radical theory of aging might constitute a common link between all the aging theories formulated so far. Reactive species like those of oxygen (reactive oxygen species, ROS), nitrogen (reactive nitrogen species, RNS) and chlorine (reactive chlorine species, RCS) are produced during normal metabolism: a certain amount of ROS/RNS/RCS production is, in fact, necessary for proper health: for example, it helps the body's immune system to kill microorganisms. … [find out more >>]
June 28, 2005 Biology of the Aging Process
Old age in most species is associated with impaired adaptive and homeostatic mechanisms leading to susceptibility to environmental or internal stresses with increasing rates of disease and death. A number of different theories of primary aging independent of disease have been put forward over the past 50 years; however, it has been also suggested that aging is simply the convergence of various diseases … [find out more >>]
June 28, 2005 Aging, Disease and Drugs
The increase in the number of older people represents a profound demographic revolution with the potential for impact that will exceed even that of the Industrial Revolution. The proportion of the world's population over the age of 60 years doubled in the last century and will increase 2-to 3-fold during the first century of this millennium. Although aging has been considered largely a crisis for the global economy and health care services, the potential capacity for excellent health in older age, allowing older people to make a positive contribution to society should be recognized. Compression of morbidity and substantive positive cohort effects mean that it is almost certainly misleading to extrapolate from current levels of disease and disability to future generations of older people, potentially upending doomsday economic scenarios … [find out more >>]
May 24, 2005 Thymus Reconstitution Using IGF-I and Stem Cell Therapy
There has been considerable interest in using hormone replacement therapy to rejuvenate the involuted thymus during aging. GH and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), a mediator of GH actions, have been of particular interest because of their thymopoietic effects and the fact that their serum concentrations decline during aging. However, treatment of aging rodents with either GH or IGF-I does not restore thymus cellularity to levels present in young animals, suggesting that additional defects might limit the magnitude of their effects. In particular, deficiencies have been reported to accumulate in the bone marrow T cell precursor compartment during aging … [find out more >>]
May 18, 2005 Effects of Aging on GH, IGF-I, and their Binding Proteins
In man, both aging and GH deficiency are associated with reduced protein synthesis, decreases in lean body mass and bone mass, and increases in body fat. Caloric intake and energy expenditure decline with age, and older persons tend to weigh about 25% more than do younger adults. Total body protein synthesis, as measured by the labeled-nitrogen glycine tracer technique, is lower in older adults. Lean body mass, as estimated by potassium-40 counting, decreases from 25 to 70 yr of age by approximately 12 kg (27%) in men and 5 kg (15%) in women. These longitudinal data agree with cross-sectional results derived from more than 12,000 subjects and presumably reflect atrophic processes in skeletal muscle, liver, kidney, spleen, skin, and bone … [find out more >>]
May 10, 2005 Transcription-associated Mutation and Aging
Transcription is mutagenic so that over the life of an individual transcription-associated mutations should accumulate in the highly expressed genes whose products carry out translation and protein/RNA degradation. This targeted accumulation of mutations should ultimately compromise translation and protein/RNA degradation and hence the cellular steady-state. This may set an intrinsic limit to the number of times these crucial genes can express functional gene product, which can explain straightforwardly the classic comparative-biological trade-offs between fecundity, metabolic rate, longevity, etc. and the need to evade these limits may be behind the evolution of the metazoan germ-line and of the transcriptionally inactive micro-nucleus of protists … [find out more >>]
May 4, 2005 Perichromosomal Particles and their Role in Cellular Aging (Hypothesis)
According to the proposed hypothesis, the memory of a cell about the achieved state of cytodifferentiation is based on the existence of a postulated genetic structure termed here as a "printomere". A printomere is a relatively small linear DNA fragment that is laterally located on the chromosomal body and armed at its termini with peculiar analogs of chromosomal telomeres, which in this case are designated as "acromeres". The printomere locates along its chromosomal original "protoprintomere" and is bound to this chromosomal segment via proteins. The printomere codes for socalled fountain RNAs (fRNAs) … [find out more >>]
April 22, 2005 Neuroendocrinology and Aging
Brown Sequard, the "father of endocrinology," was probably the first experimental gerontologist. He believed that testicular hormone secretion declined with age in men (as demonstrated many years later) and this led to a general decrease in body functions. In 1889 at the age of 72 years, feeling that he was failing in physical and mental vigor, he injected himself with crushed dog and guinea pig testes to which a little water was added and passed through a Pasteur filter. He announced that this treatment reinvigorated him and that he could now work in his laboratory all day and after dinner in the evening, could write and follow other mental pursuits. This aroused considerable skepticism among some but also led to many attempts to improve declining body functions by endocrine and other means that continue to the present day … [find out more >>]
April 15, 2005 Growth Hormone in Aging
Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, is a protein hormone of about 190 amino acids that is synthesized and secreted by cells called somatotrophs in the anterior pituitary. It is a major participant in control of several complex physiologic processes, including growth and metabolism. Growth hormone is also of considerable interest as a drug used in both humans and animals … [find out more >>]
April 12, 2005 Human Chronobiology and Nanorobots
The human body incorporates numerous biological clocks. The best-known and most-studied example is the daily (24-hour) endogenous circadian oscillator. This internal clock is normally reset by natural sunlight, which is much brighter than indoor lighting. The clock, in turn, sets the cadence for most of the other 24-hour body rhythms � for example, sleep/wakefulness cycles (e.g., melatonin), urine production, body temperature, blood cortisol and ACTH cycles, and the diurnal rhythm of mitosis in epidermal epithelium (e.g., greatest during sleep or inactivity, least during wakefulness or activity) … [find out more >>]
April 5, 2005 Oxidation and Disease
Oxidative modification of DNA, proteins, lipids and small cellular molecules by reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays a role in a wide range of common diseases and age-related degenerative conditions. These include cardiovascular disease, inflammatory conditions, and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, mutations and cancer. Oxidant damage by ROS is linked to photoaging, radiation toxicity, cataract formation and macular degeneration; it is implicated in ischemia/reperfusion tissue injury and thought to play a role in decreased function of some immune cells. Antioxidants, including those in AGE, which protect against oxidative damage lower the risk of injury to vital molecules and to varying degrees may help prevent the onset and progression of disease … [find out more >>]
March 30, 2005 Garlic Extracts as a Protective Gear
Oxidative modification of DNA, proteins and lipids by reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays a role in aging and disease, including cardiovascular, neurodegenerative and inflammatory diseases and cancer. Extracts of fresh garlic that are aged over a prolonged period to produce aged garlic extract (AGE) contain antioxidant phytochemicals that prevent oxidant damage. These include unique water-soluble organosulfur compounds, lipid-soluble organosulfur components and flavonoids, notably allixin and selenium … [find out more >>]
February 28, 2005 Inflammatory Peptides
The low-grade inflammation seen with aging is noted particularly in subjects with the metabolic syndrome of aging. Insulin resistance, obesity/abdominal obesity, and risks for many age-related diseases characterize this common syndrome. It is becoming clear that this increased adipose tissue is not simply a reservoir for excess nutrients, but rather an active and dynamic organ capable of expressing several cytokines and other fat-derived peptides (FDP). Some, but not all, FDP may have a role in development of the metabolic syndrome but there is no evidence that these FDP are causing inflammation directly. We suggest that high levels of inflammatory peptides are markers for obesity/abdominal obesity seen with aging, but some may not necessarily have a causative role in the development of inflammation … [find out more >>]
February 7, 2005 Measuring Instruments of Time in the Cells of CNS
The central nervous system coordinates functioning of the whole animal organism. For the reason that the monitoring of biological time which is very important for the orderly performance of individual development (including the duration control of consecutive developmental events, the monitoring of continuance of state of maturity, as well as the tracking both of onset of aging and an endurance of aging as a part of organismal development), time control should be carried out, most rationally, just with participation of cells of this crucial command system of an animal organism. Different facts show in total that the brain is an initial substratum of aging, and DNA of neural cells is primary substratum of this process … [find out more >>]
January 28, 2005 Nicotine – Bright Side of Toxin
There's a cheap, common, and mostly safe drug, in daily use for centuries by hundreds of millions of people that only lately has been investigated for its therapeutic potential for a long list of common ills. The list includes Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, depression and anxiety, schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and even pain and obesity. Why has interest in this potential cure-all been slow to develop? One reason: in its current forms the drug offers pharmaceutical companies no possibility of substantial profit. Another, perhaps more important: the drug is reviled, as the world's most addictive. The drug, of course, is nicotine … [find out more >>]
January 24, 2005 Testosterone and Neuroprotection
Testosterone, the gonadal sex steroid hormone, has various effects on numerous body tissues, including the brain. Beyond its reproductive function, this hormone is responsible for increased muscle mass, sexual function and libido, body hair and decreased risk of osteoporosis. Testosterone also takes part the in nervous system development. Gender-specific morphological and behavioral patterns of the adult are determined by the presence or absence of this hormone during certain critical periods of the central nervous system (CNS) development … [find out more >>]
January 12, 2005 Mental Fatigue and Glutamate Transport
Mental fatigue with reduced capacity for attention, concentration, and learning, as well as subsequent disturbance of short-term memory, is a common symptom in diseases with general or patchy neuroinflammation, such as multiple sclerosis (MS) and neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. The mental fatigue often appears prior to other more prominent mental, cognitive, or physical symptoms from the nervous system in these diseases. Mental fatigue is also common during the rehabilitation after meningitis or encephalitis (postinfectious mental fatigue), stroke or brain trauma (posttraumatic mental fatigue), being especially troublesome when major neurological symptoms have disappeared and the patient is on his way back to work … [find out more >>]
January 5, 2005 Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Major Depression
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a recurrent, debilitating, and potentially life threatening illness. Over the last 100 years, the age of onset of major depression has decreased, and its overall incidence has increased in Western countries. The increases in depression, up to 20-fold higher post 1945, cannot be fully explained by changes in attitudes of health professionals or society, diagnostic criteria, reporting bias, institutional or other artifacts. Despite advances in pharmacotherapy, and the increasing sophistication of cognitive/behavioral interventions, many patients with MDD remain treatment resistant … [find out more >>]
November 19, 2004 Chronic Stressors Display Potent Health Consequences for Older Adults, Accelerating Risk of a Host of Age-related Diseases
Overproduction of IL-6, a proinflammatory cytokine, is associated with a spectrum of age-related conditions including cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, arthritis, type 2 diabetes, certain cancers, periodontal disease, frailty, and functional decline. To describe the pattern of change in IL-6 over 6 years among older adults undergoing a chronic stressor, this longitudinal community study assessed the relationship between chronic stress and IL-6 production in 119 men and women who were caregiving for a spouse with dementia and 106 noncaregivers, with a mean age at study entry of 70.58 (SD = 8.03) for the full sample … [find out more >>]
November 10, 2004 Different View on Aging – Redusome Hypothesis of Aging
The redusome hypothesis of aging and the control of biological time in individual development is proposed. Redusomes are hypothetical perichromosomal particles arising in differentiation events during morphogenesis of an organism. The linear molecule of DNA covered with proteins in the redusome is assumed a copy of a segment of chromosomal DNA. Redusomes are located mainly in subtelomeric regions of chromosomes. The redusome does not leave the body of a chromosome even in the course of cellular divisions, being kept in its chromosomal nest … [find out more >>]
November 3, 2004 The Potential Role of Leptin in the Anti-aging Effect of CR, with a Focus on Neuroendocrine and Metabolic Adaptation
Organisms have evolved neuroendocrine and metabolic response systems to enhance survival during periods of food shortage, which occur frequently in nature. The anti-aging effect of caloric restriction (CR) might derive from these adaptive responses to maximize organism survival. Caloric restriction (CR) is an important paradigm in biomedical gerontology. Because the anti-aging effect of CR is robust and reproducible in many laboratory organisms, ongoing projects have been extended to nonhuman primates. The effects of CR have been explained from the evolutionary view that organisms have evolved neuroendocrine and metabolic response systems to maximize survival during periods of food shortage … [find out more >>]
October 25, 2004 Critical Proteins and Their Change in Organism
There is a large body of empiric evidence suggesting that changes in body composition reflect changes in metabolism of energy and protein within the body. For example, as lean mass is accrued during growth and adolescence, nitrogen balance is positive and protein metabolism favors synthesis. In obese subjects, there is a commensurate increase in fat mass and in fat oxidation. During starvation and under conditions of physiologic stress, loss of weight and negative elemental balances occur together. Thus, an underlying tenet of all research into the mechanisms of body composition change is that body composition is in equilibrium with metabolic state … [find out more >>]
October 18, 2004 Organism Differentiation Level, Stem Cell Depletion and Aging - Short Aging Hypothesis
Aging is a disease. Evolutionary aging became as a natural process. Nevertheless, there are still found some organisms that overcome aging process. Some of them are protozoa. Mainly all of their cells are stem cells capable to regenerate any part of the body. Mammals are similar organisms that differ in differentiated cell number, size, hormonal regulation etc. So, what could be the answer why so different organisms as protozoa are immortal and higher differentiation level organisms end their lives by dieing from age onset? Protozoa are characterized by very low number of differentiated cells. Not each but many of the cells in their body are totipotent or at least multipotent ... [find out more >>]
October 4, 2004 Immune System in Aging Body � Facts due to SENIEUR Studies
In general population, many protective immune responses are impaired in old age, leading to an increased risk of infection. However, recent studies in SENIEUR subjects (healthy centenarians who are examples of successful aging) suggest that complex remodeling and reshaping of the immune system occurs with aging. An appropriate regular regimen of endurance exercise might help elderly to lead a quality of life by preserving immune function. However, very little is known regarding the interaction between exercise, aging and the immune system ... [find out more >>]
September 21, 2004 Cell Therapy in Lung Injury Treatment
Fueled by the promise of regenerative medicine, currently there is unprecedented interest in stem cells. Furthermore, there have been revolutionary, but somewhat controversial, advances in our understanding of stem cell biology. Stem cells likely play key roles in the repair of diverse lung injuries. However, due to very low rates of cellular proliferation in vivo in the normal steady state, cellular and architectural complexity of the respiratory tract, and the lack of an intensive research effort, lung stem cells remain poorly understood compared to those in other major organ systems ... [find out more >>]
September 13, 2004 Dendritic Cells – New Tricks with Old Players
Malignant primary brain tumors now cause more deaths each year than some of the most notoriously prevalent malignancies, including melanoma. Ultimately, the infiltrative nature of the tumor, the impracticality of optimal resection, and the comparative intolerance of the normal brain for cytotoxic therapies create the need to pursue more specific treatment modalities. The immune system may provide some direction in this pursuit; as such, desired specificity is the hallmark of its normal surveillance function ... [find out more >>]
August 13, 2004 Metabolic Age Remodeling
In 1989 a general theory was proposed that suggested that ageing is indirectly controlled by a network of cellular and molecular defense mechanisms, including heat shock proteins, DNA repair mechanisms, apoptosis, and - at a more integrated level - the immune and the neuroendocrine systems (the network theory of ageing). The aim of this theory was to combine suggestions of evolutionary theories of ageing and data emerging from cellular and molecular biology of ageing. One prediction of this hypothesis is that animal and humans capable of reaching an age close to the extreme limit of the life span characteristic for the species may be equipped with a very efficient network of anti-ageing mechanisms ... [find out more >>]
June 21, 2004 Transplantation of Hematopoietic Stem Cells. Clinical practice. (Part 2)
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used for many years to treat various malignant and nonmalignant hematologic conditions. However, the high-dose conditioning regimen can lead to major organ dysfunction, life-threatening infection and bleeding. In a previous section, we reviewed allogeneic as well as autologous transplantation aspects. In the allogeneic setting, graft-versus-host disease may develop, making post-transplant management complex. Once a transplant recipient has been discharged from hospital and returns to his or her local community, the primary care physician can play an important role in care ... [find out more >>]
June 18, 2004 Transplantation of Hematopoietic Stem Cells. Clinical practice. (Part 1)
Bone marrow transplantation was first attempted, albeit unsuccessfully, in 1939, when human bone marrow cells were injected intravenously to treat a patient with aplastic anemia. Since that time, despite uneven progress and problems with entities such as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), the procedure has become an accepted treatment for various hematologic deficiencies and malignant conditions ... [find out more >>]
May 14, 2004 Immune Response Against Tumor Cells
Therapeutic vaccines that have targeted established disease in cancer patients have not been successful in eliciting significant, long-lasting tumor regression. Over the last several decades most attempts to vaccinate against cancer and generate an antitumor response have been in patients with measurable tumors, and the clinical endpoint of such trials has been to evaluate a reduction in tumor burden. The inability to effectively decrease tumor growth with active immunization is most likely due, in large part, to an unfavorable tumor microenvironment incapable of propagating a robust immune response. The defects in the tumor environment are many ... [find out more >>]
April 29, 2004 Fetal-Maternal Microchimerism – Damage and Remedy
Microchimerism refers to a small population of cells or DNA in one individual that derives from another genetically distinct individual. Cell traffic between mother and fetus during pregnancy has recently been found to result in long-term persistence of fetal cells (fetal microchimerism) in the mother and maternal cells in her progeny (maternal microchimerism). Microchimerism may also result from twin-twin transfer in utero. Although not formally proven, fetal microchimerism is presumed to persist after miscarriage and abortion. Theoretically, microchimerism could also derive from an older sibling transferred via the maternal circulation to the fetus of a later pregnancy ... [find out more >>]
April 27, 2004 Organ Engineering
The development of the neural crest-derived sensory, autonomic, and enteric nervous systems is an intricate process that directs the egress of crest cells from the dorsal neural tube, their migration and differentiation in distinct ganglia, and their ultimate projections to maturing peripheral organs. This feat requires the coordination of complex sets of target-derived cues that play instructive roles in neuronal differentiation, survival, and pathfinding in vivo, to ensure that neuron numbers precisely match target innervation requirements. Although neurotrophic factors, including the neurotrophins nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), as well as ... [find out more >>]
April 8, 2004 VEGF Role in Neurodegeneration
No factor is better known for its angiogenic effects than vascular endothelization growth factor (VEGF) – this molecule has been implicated in virtually every type of angiogenic disorder, including those associated with cancer, ischemia, and inflammation. Recent studies have revealed, however, that VEGF is also involved in neurodegeneration. How can we explain this unexpected finding? It turns out that the role of VEGF in the nervous system is not restricted only to regulating vessel growth: VEGF also has direct effects on different types of neural cells – including even neural stem cells (NSCs). This link between angiogenesis and neurogenesis offers novel opportunities to better decipher the insufficiently understood molecular pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative disorders, and promises to open future avenues for improved treatment ... [find out more >>]
March 30, 2004 Dendritic Cells – Future Hope for New Vaccine Development
Aging is not only associated with decreased metabolic rate, miss regulated hormone secretion, common age related diseases, other annoying disorders. The decrease in immune system in general is observed here too. For example amount of basic antibodies responsible for immune response, in the person of 50 and 70 is lower at least in 2 fold. A depletion of immunocompetent cells in the blood of elderly persons is also a rule. Because of this elderly people are more prone to acquire chronic diseases, which are not common in young ones. There are evidence that Alzheimer's disease is caused by ... [find out more >>]
March 16, 2004 Oxidative Stress, Carotenoids and Immune Response
The immune system is comprised of innate (natural) and acquired (adaptive) immunity. Acquired immunity is composed of lymphocytes; these are highly active cells that constantly generate reactive oxidative products (ROS) as a part of their normal cellular activity. Oxidizing pollutants and many viruses also can induce ROS production by normal cells. The ROS are highly reactive and can destroy cellular membranes, cellular proteins and nucleic acids. One mechanism by which the innate branch of the immune system protects the animal is by phagocytizing and subsequently killing antigens through an oxidative bactericidal mechanism termed respiratory burst ... [find out more >>]
March 2, 2004 Andropause in Aging Males
In primary care practice, it is not unusual to encounter male patients in their 50s or older who report having loss of libido, erectile dysfunction, fatigue, and depression. Such signs and symptoms may signal an age-related decline in androgen levels, which commonly begin after age 40. The term andropause refers to a state of lowered androgen levels. Androgens are a group of hormones that include testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and androstenedione, among others. There is undeniable evidence that aging results in a lowering of androgen levels ... [find out more >>]
February 20, 2004 Stress and Cellular Senescence
Cellular senescence is the most fundamental aspects of cell behavior. Most types of primary normal cells that are grown in culture do not proliferate indefinitely. Instead, after a period of rapid proliferation, their division rate slows, ultimately ceasing altogether. Such cells become unresponsive to mitogenic stimuli yet can remain viable for extended periods of time. Upon entering the state of senescence, cells undergo a dramatic change in morphology � their volume increases and they lose their original shape, acquiring a flattened cytoplasm ... [find out more >>]
February 17, 2004 Mechanisms Involved in Cardiovascular Pathology
Organism is a system, and aging is great systemic impact to this system. The strike here is onto homeostasis. When it is muddled pathological processes takes over. It is common that aging begins gradually and overtakes different systems in different time. One of systems we will discuss here- cardiovascular with most common elements and mechanisms ... [find out more >>]
February 12, 2004 Most Actual Topics in Aging
There is no question that finding solutions to cognitive decline and the behavioral problems associated with it is a central area in geriatrics. Our knowledge of the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease is moving forward rapidly. While beta-amyloid has taken center stage, both as a neurotransmitter that produces learning and memory disturbances as well as an initiator of tissue destruction, possibly through free radical activation, there is also increasing understanding of the tauopathies. A recent study showed that measuring the protein in lip epithelial tissue could possibly be used to diagnose Alzheimer's disease ... [find out more >>]
February 10, 2004 Telomeres and Cancer
Every day, we sacrifice many varied cell types such as granulocytes, keratinocytes, hepatocytes, and erythrocytes at the altar of organismal homeostasis. For the individual to thrive, lost cells must be constantly replaced, and recent evidence has identified significant capacities for repair and regeneration even in organs once thought to be postmitotic such as the pancreatic islet and the brain. Given this continuous cellular attrition, normal tissue function requires that the rate of cell loss be matched by the rate of renewal. Aging is hastened by forces that either accelerate cellular loss or retard tissue repair. When loss exceeds repair, ensuing cellular attrition eventually leads to a decline in organ function and ultimately failure ... [find out more >>]
January 26, 2004 Genetic Engineering to Mollify Neurodegenerative Disorders
The nervous system, made up largely of a population of postmitotic nondividing cells, is subject to degenerative conditions that occur with increasing frequency in old age. Those are recognized as "diseases", as opposed to simply aging, tend to affect selective, defined groups of neurons with specific biochemical and functional characteristics to produce the disease phenotype. Examples of such focal or restricted neurodegeneration include Parkinson's disease (PD), resulting from degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra to produce the triad of bradykinesia, rigidity, and tremor, and motor neuron disease (MND), in which degeneration of "lower" motor neurons in the spinal cord and "upper" motor neurons in the brain result in weakness without involvement of sensory or higher cortical functions ... [find out more >>]
January 21, 2004 Brain Injury Regeneration
Most people working with brain-injured patients in the field of neurorehabilitation today probably take it for granted that, under the right conditions, some degree of "plasticity" and recovery may be possible. However, the actual notion that recovery of function can be promoted by pharmacologic agents, the transplantation of fetal or stem cell tissues, environmental stimulation, hormonal factors and such, is really a very new idea. Twenty-five to thirty years ago, most neuropsychologists accepted the hypothesis that, in the damaged adult brain especially, after a functional area was lost, there was no possibility of recovery, regeneration, or repair. There is now more debate and more empirical evidence that functional recovery can occur under certain conditions ... [find out more >>]
November 5, 2003 Vitamin C, General Overview. Truth and Lies in Healing Effect
Organism is an integrated system; all processes are closely related there. Lots of molecules in billions of cells interact every second. As a result of such interactions organisms get lots of different chemical reactions and compounds. Some of them are useful, other harmful. As an engine: we use fuel and get energy plus waist. In organism during such reactions we get lots of "waist" compounds, one of them are reactive oxygen species (ROS). It is already known that ROS play a crucial role in aging and age related diseases. As being very reactive it damages our hereditary/information (DNA) system, proteins, general function of cells in common ... [find out more >>]
October 14, 2003 Role of Mitochondria Mutations in Neurodegenerative Diseases
Over the last decade, the underlying genetic bases of several neurodegenerative disorders, including Huntington disease (HD), Friedreich ataxia (FRDA), hereditary spastic paraplegia, and rare familial forms of Parkinson disease (PD), Alzheimer disease (AD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), have been identified. However, the etiologies of sporadic AD, PD, and ALS, which are among the most common neurodegenerative diseases, are still unclear, as are the pathogenic mechanisms giving rise to the various, and often highly stereotypical, clinical features of these diseases. Despite the differential clinical features of the various neurodegenerative disorders, the fact that neurons are highly dependent on oxidative energy metabolism has ... [find out more >>]
October 9, 2003 Oxidative Stress Role in Ageing Through Influence on Cell Cycle
While numerous studies have examined the existence of increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) in later-onset neurodegenerative disorders, the mechanism by which neurons die under conditions of oxidative stress remains largely unknown. Fairly recent evidence has suggested that one mechanism linked to the death of terminally differentiated neurons is aberrant reentry into the cell cycle. This phenomenon has been reported in Alzheimer disease (AD) patients, Down syndrome patients, and several mouse neurodegenerative models. Here it will be overviewed recent findings regarding the influence of oxidative stress on neurodegeneration and possible connections between oxidative stress and unscheduled cell cycle reentry, the understanding of which could lead to new strategies in the development of therapeutic agents for neurodegenerative disorders ... [find out more >>]
September 5, 2003 Spontaneous Regression of Cancer Phenomena is Linked to Specific Mechanisms Decreasing with Age
Regression of human cancers without treatment (spontaneous regression, SR) is well documented for many types of cancer, but occurs infrequently. The most intriguing implication of SR is that there might be a rare, but extremely effective, mechanism engaged to eradicate cancer cells after the development of advanced malignancy. Despite efforts over many decades, the mechanism(s) of SR in humans and animals has remained elusive ... [find out more >>]
September 4, 2003 Neurogenesis is a Whole Life Process
Process of neurogenesis is known to proceed in newborns. Adults, it was thought, have their finite number of neuronal cells, which doesn't change until death. So because of their degeneration with age and inability to renovate we have neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer's, Parkinson's etc.). Recent studies with stem cells opened new gates of cell's renovation possibilities. Human body is not as rigid as it was thought earlier; cells responsible for regeneration processes are present in all human tissues without any exception and these cells are called stem cells. But let's start from neurons and neurogenesis ... [find out more >>]
September 3, 2003 Calorie Restriction and Gene Expression in Aging Organisms
Caloric restriction (CR) is the only intervention shown to extend lifespan in mammals. It is also the most effective means known of reducing cancer incidence and increasing the mean age of onset of age-related diseases and tumors. Beside this, caloric restriction retards the development of a broad spectrum of other pathophysiological changes. It is well known that aging is associated with specific transcriptional alterations in the gastrocnemius muscle, cerebral cortex, liver, cerebellum tissues, etc. CR can prevent or delay most of the largest age-related transcriptional alterations. The effects of life-span-extending caloric restriction (CR) on gene expression in the liver were examined by DNA micro array analysis � a useful tool capable to ... [find out more >>]
August 22, 2003 Genes and Aging
The analysis of single-gene mutations in flies and nematode worms has begun to yield important clues to the molecular basis of aging and genetic control of longevity in invertebrates. At present there are four examples of single gene mutations that extend longevity in mammals. The best documented of these is the Ames dwarf mutation, now known as Prop-1df, which in homozygous form has been shown to extend longevity by ~50% in both males and females. Homozygous df/df mice show defects in embryonic development of the anterior pituitary that lead to an absence of cells responsible for the production of growth hormone (GH), thyroid-stimulating hormone, and prolactin (PRL). The small body size of these mice is apparent within the first 3 weeks of age, and young adults are approximately one-third of the size of +/df or +/+ littermates, which are ... [find out more >>]
August 21, 2003 Mysterious Klotho
Mice homozygous for severely hypomorphic alleles of the Klotho gene (klotho mice) exhibit a syndrome resembling human aging, including atherosclerosis, osteoporosis, emphysema, and infertility. Based on both macroscopic and histological appearance, klotho mice are developmentally normal until 3-4 weeks of age. Thereafter, they exhibit growth retardation, gradually become inactive, and die prematurely at ~8-9 weeks of age. The klotho gene encodes a putative type I membrane protein, which consists of an N-terminal signal sequence, an extracellular domain with two internal repeats (KL1 and KL2), a single transmembrane domain, and a short intracellular domain. The two internal repeats share homology with ... [find out more >>]
August 20, 2003 Old Fibroblasts Could Be Responsible for Developing Cancer
Mammalian cells can respond to damage or stress by entering a state of arrested growth and altered function termed cellular senescence. Several lines of evidence suggest that the senescence response suppresses tumorigenesis. Cellular senescence is also thought to contribute to aging, but the mechanism is not well understood. Senescent human fibroblasts stimulate premalignant and malignant, but not normal, epithelial cells to proliferate in culture and form tumors in mice. In culture, the growth stimulation was evident when senescent cells comprised only 10% of the fibroblast population and was equally robust whether senescence was induced by replicative exhaustion, oncogenic RAS, p14ARF, or hydrogen peroxide. Moreover, it was ... [find out more >>]
July 19, 2003 ROS, DNA Damage and Genome Maintenance
The accumulation of somatic damage is now considered a main cause of the aging process in species varying from nematodes and insects to mice and humans. Among the various sources of somatic damage, reactive oxygen species (ROS), the natural by-products of oxidative energy metabolism, are often considered as the ultimate cause of aging. However, free radicals also participate in physiological processes that benefit fitness, such as growth factor signal transduction. Thus, optimal energy production must be balanced against the damaging effects of ROS. This trade-off is highlighted by several recent reports on mouse mutants with extended life-span. Inactivation of ... [find out more >>]
July 15, 2003 Calorie Restriction – Interspecies Phenomena!
Calorie restriction in rodents is already known to slow down aging process. What could be the result of such prescription of healthier life to primates and humans? Does this "anti-aging, health increasing drug" works in all organisms uniformly? Starting with yeast and ending with humans? ... [find out more >>]
June 25, 2003 Alteration of DNA Methylation Could Be the Way to Cell Aging
Methylation of genes, DNA repeated sequences are just a way of gene regulation. Of cause as organism is an integrated system, so the possibility that DNA methylation is involved in aging could not be ignored. By comparing germ cell to any somatic cell due to methylation difference we could decide, if this possibility will be true, or at least find some mechanisms, which can help us to go further into experiment. Let's start from a concern that increased paternal age may be associated with altered fertility and an increased incidence of birth defects in man. Earlier, the abnormalities in the fertility and in the embryos sired by older males were observed. Aging in mammals is associated with ... [find out more >>]
June 12, 2003 Skin Aging
Skin serves as a protective barrier between internal organs and the environment. Skin is a complex organ with multiple cell types and structures. Skin is divided into three regions: epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous tissue. The epidermis is the cell-rich superficial layer composed mainly of keratinocytes, which are the most numerous cells in the skin, pigment producing melanocytes, and antigen presenting Langerhans cells. A basement membrane separates the epidermis from the dermis, which is composed primarily of extracellular matrix proteins, produced by resident fibroblasts. The vascular supply to the skin resides in the dermis. The subcutaneous tissue consists of fat cells that ... [find out more >>]
May 28, 2003 C.Elegans as a Model for Aging Research
When the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans was first considered as a model for the study of ageing, few foresaw how valuable it would prove to be. More than 50 genes that extend lifespan have now been described. Some of these genes regulate a key developmental switch, while the others control core processes, such as the overall rate of metabolism. These are exactly the kinds of processes predicted to be important to longevity by the evolutionary theories of ageing, which suggests that ... [find out more >>]
May 27, 2003 Telomeres, Senescence, History
Telomeres now are well known units of molecular cell system. They play great role in cell life cycle regulation, sometimes they are called molecular clock of the cell. Lets remember the history of telomeres, how everything started ... [find out more >>]
May 21, 2003 Model for CR Effects on Mammalian Aging
For almost 70 years, calorie restriction has been known to extend life span. Despite the extensive physiological characterisation of this dietary regimen, the molecular basis for the slowing in aging remains unsolved. Several classical models for CR propose a ... [find out more >>]
May 20, 2003 Links Between CR, Aging, and Apoptosis
Scientists in several recent studies suggested, that apoptosis might limit mammalian life span. Mice with a targeted disruption in the p66shc gene exhibited a ... [find out more >>]
April 8, 2003 Free Radicals and Stress Proteins are Modulators of the Ageing Process
Considerable data has been presented concerning the possibility that oxidative processes play important roles in the pathogenesis of many common disorders such as coronary heart disease and some cancers, in addition to a fundamental role in the ageing process. Several theories of ageing have been proposed ... [find out more >>]
April 8, 2003 Ageing is Associated with an Enhanced Free Radical Generation and Oxidative Damage to Skeletal Muscle
Most studies have provided indirect evidence of an age-related increased production of free radicals in skeletal muscle with an increased production of products of protein, lipid and DNA oxidation and an enhanced oxidative damage to ... [find out more >>]
March 27, 2003 Klotho Gene Could Be Involved in Aging?
Mice homozygous for severely hypomorphic alleles of the Klotho gene (klotho mice) exhibit a syndrome resembling human aging, including atherosclerosis, osteoporosis, emphysema, and infertility. Based on both macroscopic and histological appearance, klotho mice ar ... [find out more >>]
March 19, 2003 Neurodegeneration and Aging
Many elderly individuals exhibit mild motor and cognitive alterations reminiscent of those found in neurodegeneration. This observation gave birth to the popular idea that ... [find out more >>]
March 17, 2003 mtDNA Change During Aging
Recently a large aging-dependent accumulation of tissue-specific point mutations at critical control sites for mtDNA replication in human skin fibroblasts and skeletal muscle was reported. Such mutations increasing with age could influence ... [find out more >>]
February 18, 2003 RNA Degradation and Aging
Gene expression is a combination of many processes, including transcription, pre-mRNA processing, nucleocytoplasmic transport of mRNA, translation, mRNA decay, and protein modification and decay. Many changes in the programs of gene expression occur during development, differentiation, and aging. These alterations are ... [find out more >>]
February 12, 2003 Extensive Allelic Variation and Ultra Short Telomeres in Senescent Human Cells
In the early embryonic period cells have a determined length of telomere endings. As organism develops by cell differentiation, cells keep ... [find out more >>]
February 3, 2003 MtDNA in Aging, Cancer and Mitochondrial Disease?
Mitochondria are the main integrated power organelles in the cell. And they are straightly concerned with cell and organism. It is well known that ... [find out more >>]
January 25, 2003 Telomere Endings and Rb Family Proteins
An interesting finding by M. A. Blasco et al. was published in Nature, where it was shown that telomere endings were controlled by Rb family proteins. As the molecular ... [find out more >>]
January 21, 2003 IGF-1R and Lifespan
Recent studies of positive IGF-1 influence on lifespan showed that it is highly involved into the regulation of individual's longevity and ... [find out more >>]
January 15, 2003 Nucleolus Protein Involved in Immortality
A new protein influencing cell cycle has been described in the recent number of Genes and Development. A protein known as ... [find out more >>]
December 30, 2002 The Role of the Nervous System in Lifespan Determination
There is generally a positive correlation between brain/body size ratio and lifespan, particularly among mammals, suggesting a role for the brain in determining lifespan. Recent studies in diverse organisms including ... [find out more >>]
December 13, 2002 Gut hormone PYY3-36, food intake and longevity
It is well known that calorie restriction prolongs life span in rodents. This works by slowing metabolic rate, and ... [find out more >>]
December 6, 2002 Aging Tricks
When the tiny worm Caenorhabditis elegans cannot sense what is going on in its immediate surroundings, there is a surprising payoff. It lives up to twice as long as ... [find out more >>]
December 5, 2002 Serum Insulin-like Growth Factor I in Brain Amyloid-β Levels Regulation
Levels of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), a neuroprotective hormone, decrease in serum during aging, whereas amyloid-β (Aβ), which is involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease, accumulates in the brain. High brain Aβ levels ... [find out more >>]
November 29, 2002 Facts and Theories Why Body Weight is Correlated to Longevity and Mortality
In the US, obesity has increased by 30% over the last half century. American males are now about 25 kg heavier than ... [find out more >>]
November 20, 2002 Lifespan Extension and Delayed Immune and Collagen Aging in Mutant Mice with Defects in Growth Hormone Production
The analysis of single-gene mutations in flies and nematode worms has begun to yield important clues to the molecular basis of aging and genetic control of longevity in invertebrates. At present ... [find out more >>]
October 17, 2002 Aging and Protein Synthesis Machinery
Scientists from Department of Pharmacology, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey declares that although ... [find out more >>]
October 15, 2002 Teeth Forever!
A team of scientists grew accurate versions of natural teeth in a laboratory, raising the possibility of ... [find out more >>]
September 28, 2002 The Role of GH and IGF-1 in Mechanisms of Aging
The above critique of the application of models of GH/IGF-1 deficiency to aging research indicates that the precise roles of GH and IGF-1 in regulation of lifespan are ... [find out more >>]
September 5, 2002 Extension of the Life Span with Superoxide Dismutase/Catalase Mimetics
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) primarily arise as by-products of normal metabolic activities and are thought to influence the etiology of age-related diseases. If ... [find out more >>]
September 5, 2002 Effects of Aging on Central and Peripheral Mammalian Clocks
The suprachiazmatic nucleus (SCN) is a circadian pacemaker structure that drives myriad behavioral and physiological rhythms in mammals. Surgical ... [find out more >>]
September 4, 2002 Aging and Gene Expression in Brain
Although the molecular basis of aging remains unknown, a large body of evidence indicates that oxidative stress results in DNA damage that subsequently ... [find out more >>]
July 19, 2002 The Aging Factors
The aging of higher organisms is multi-factorial process. It is influenced and modified by ... [find out more >>]
July 18, 2002 Aging Chromatin and Food Restriction
Aging hypotheses are resumed into two categories: first invokes extrinsic and intrinsic factors that damage intracellular or extra cellular ... [find out more >>]
July 18, 2002 Vitamin E Influence on Brain and Lymphocyte Band 3 Proteins
The role of free radicals and oxidative damage in relation to cellular aging is a subject that has received considerable attention recently. It has been well documented that ... [find out more >>]
July 18, 2002 A Genetically Engineered Model Mouse Resembling Human Aging
A new mouse mutant, termed klotho, was discovered that exhibits a syndrome resembling human aging, including a reduced life span, decreased ... [find out more >>]
July 17, 2002 DHEA Sulphate - Antiaging Compound?
During the past five decades, a myriad of animal experiments has suggested that DHEA is a multifunctional hormone with ... [find out more >>]